Source code for sympy.concrete.products

from sympy.core.containers import Tuple
from sympy.core.core import C
from sympy.core.expr import Expr
from sympy.core.mul import Mul
from sympy.core.singleton import S
from sympy.core.sympify import sympify
from sympy.functions.elementary.piecewise import piecewise_fold
from sympy.polys import quo, roots
from sympy.simplify import powsimp


[docs]class Product(Expr): r"""Represents unevaluated products. ``Product`` represents a finite or infinite product, with the first argument being the general form of terms in the series, and the second argument being ``(dummy_variable, start, end)``, with ``dummy_variable`` taking all integer values from ``start`` through ``end``. In accordance with long-standing mathematical convention, the end term is included in the product. Finite products =============== For finite products (and products with symbolic limits assumed to be finite) we follow the analogue of the summation convention described by Karr [1], especially definition 3 of section 1.4. The product: .. math:: \prod_{m \leq i < n} f(i) has *the obvious meaning* for `m < n`, namely: .. math:: \prod_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = f(m) f(m+1) \cdot \ldots \cdot f(n-2) f(n-1) with the upper limit value `f(n)` excluded. The product over an empty set is one if and only if `m = n`: .. math:: \prod_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = 1 \quad \mathrm{for} \quad m = n Finally, for all other products over empty sets we assume the following definition: .. math:: \prod_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = \frac{1}{\prod_{n \leq i < m} f(i)} \quad \mathrm{for} \quad m > n It is important to note that above we define all products with the upper limit being exclusive. This is in contrast to the usual mathematical notation, but does not affect the product convention. Indeed we have: .. math:: \prod_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = \prod_{i = m}^{n - 1} f(i) where the difference in notation is intentional to emphasize the meaning, with limits typeset on the top being inclusive. Examples ======== >>> from sympy.abc import a, b, i, k, m, n, x >>> from sympy import Product, factorial, oo >>> Product(k,(k,1,m)) Product(k, (k, 1, m)) >>> Product(k,(k,1,m)).doit() factorial(m) >>> Product(k**2,(k,1,m)) Product(k**2, (k, 1, m)) >>> Product(k**2,(k,1,m)).doit() (factorial(m))**2 Wallis' product for pi: >>> W = Product(2*i/(2*i-1) * 2*i/(2*i+1), (i, 1, oo)) >>> W Product(4*i**2/((2*i - 1)*(2*i + 1)), (i, 1, oo)) Direct computation currently fails: >>> W.doit() nan But we can approach the infinite product by a limit of finite products: >>> from sympy import limit >>> W2 = Product(2*i/(2*i-1)*2*i/(2*i+1), (i, 1, n)) >>> W2 Product(4*i**2/((2*i - 1)*(2*i + 1)), (i, 1, n)) >>> W2e = W2.doit() >>> W2e 2**(-2*n)*4**n*(factorial(n))**2/(RisingFactorial(1/2, n)*RisingFactorial(3/2, n)) >>> limit(W2e, n, oo) pi/2 By the same formula we can compute sin(pi/2): >>> from sympy import pi, gamma, simplify >>> P = pi * x * Product(1 - x**2/k**2,(k,1,n)) >>> P = P.subs(x, pi/2) >>> P pi**2*Product(1 - pi**2/(4*k**2), (k, 1, n))/2 >>> Pe = P.doit() >>> Pe pi**2*RisingFactorial(1 + pi/2, n)*RisingFactorial(-pi/2 + 1, n)/(2*(factorial(n))**2) >>> Pe = Pe.rewrite(gamma) >>> Pe pi**2*gamma(n + 1 + pi/2)*gamma(n - pi/2 + 1)/(2*gamma(1 + pi/2)*gamma(-pi/2 + 1)*gamma(n + 1)**2) >>> Pe = simplify(Pe) >>> Pe sin(pi**2/2)*gamma(n + 1 + pi/2)*gamma(n - pi/2 + 1)/gamma(n + 1)**2 >>> limit(Pe, n, oo) sin(pi**2/2) Products with the lower limit being larger than the upper one: >>> Product(1/i, (i, 6, 1)).doit() 120 >>> Product(i, (i, 2, 5)).doit() 120 The empty product: >>> Product(i, (i, n, n-1)).doit() 1 An example showing that the symbolic result of a product is still valid for seemingly nonsensical values of the limits. Then the Karr convention allows us to give a perfectly valid interpretation to those products by interchanging the limits according to the above rules: >>> P = Product(2, (i, 10, n)).doit() >>> P 2**(n - 9) >>> P.subs(n, 5) 1/16 >>> Product(2, (i, 10, 5)).doit() 1/16 >>> 1/Product(2, (i, 6, 9)).doit() 1/16 An explicit example of the Karr summation convention applied to products: >>> P1 = Product(x, (i, a, b)).doit() >>> P1 x**(-a + b + 1) >>> P2 = Product(x, (i, b+1, a-1)).doit() >>> P2 x**(a - b - 1) >>> simplify(P1 * P2) 1 And another one: >>> P1 = Product(i, (i, b, a)).doit() >>> P1 RisingFactorial(b, a - b + 1) >>> P2 = Product(i, (i, a+1, b-1)).doit() >>> P2 RisingFactorial(a + 1, -a + b - 1) >>> P1 * P2 RisingFactorial(b, a - b + 1)*RisingFactorial(a + 1, -a + b - 1) >>> simplify(P1 * P2) 1 See Also ======== Sum, summation product References ========== .. [1] Michael Karr, "Summation in Finite Terms", Journal of the ACM, Volume 28 Issue 2, April 1981, Pages 305-350 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=322248.322255 .. [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplication#Capital_Pi_notation .. [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empty_product """ __slots__ = ['is_commutative'] def __new__(cls, function, *symbols, **assumptions): from sympy.integrals.integrals import _process_limits # Any embedded piecewise functions need to be brought out to the # top level so that integration can go into piecewise mode at the # earliest possible moment. function = piecewise_fold(sympify(function)) if function is S.NaN: return S.NaN if not symbols: raise ValueError("Product variables must be given") limits, sign = _process_limits(*symbols) # Only limits with lower and upper bounds are supported; the indefinite # Product is not supported if any(len(l) != 3 or None in l for l in limits): raise ValueError( 'Product requires values for lower and upper bounds.') obj = Expr.__new__(cls, **assumptions) arglist = [sign*function] arglist.extend(limits) obj._args = tuple(arglist) obj.is_commutative = function.is_commutative # limits already checked return obj @property def term(self): return self._args[0] function = term @property def limits(self): return self._args[1:] @property
[docs] def variables(self): """Return a list of the product variables >>> from sympy import Product >>> from sympy.abc import x, i >>> Product(x**i, (i, 1, 3)).variables [i] """ return [l[0] for l in self.limits]
@property
[docs] def free_symbols(self): """ This method returns the symbols that will affect the value of the Product when evaluated. This is useful if one is trying to determine whether a product depends on a certain symbol or not. >>> from sympy import Product >>> from sympy.abc import x, y >>> Product(x, (x, y, 1)).free_symbols set([y]) """ from sympy.integrals.integrals import _free_symbols if self.function.is_zero or self.function == 1: return set() return _free_symbols(self)
@property
[docs] def is_zero(self): """A Product is zero only if its term is zero. """ return self.term.is_zero
@property
[docs] def is_number(self): """ Return True if the Product will result in a number, else False. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import log, Product >>> from sympy.abc import x, y, z >>> log(2).is_number True >>> Product(x, (x, 1, 2)).is_number True >>> Product(y, (x, 1, 2)).is_number False >>> Product(1, (x, y, z)).is_number True >>> Product(2, (x, y, z)).is_number False """ return self.function.is_zero or self.function == 1 or not self.free_symbols
def as_dummy(self): from sympy.integrals.integrals import _as_dummy return _as_dummy(self) def doit(self, **hints): f = self.function for index, limit in enumerate(self.limits): i, a, b = limit dif = b - a if dif.is_Integer and dif < 0: a, b = b + 1, a - 1 f = 1 / f g = self._eval_product(f, (i, a, b)) if g is None: return Product(powsimp(f), *self.limits[index:]) else: f = g if hints.get('deep', True): return f.doit(**hints) else: return powsimp(f) def _eval_adjoint(self): if self.is_commutative: return Product(self.function.adjoint(), *self.limits) return None def _eval_conjugate(self): return Product(self.function.conjugate(), *self.limits) def _eval_product(self, term, limits): from sympy.concrete.delta import deltaproduct, _has_simple_delta from sympy.concrete.summations import summation from sympy.functions import KroneckerDelta (k, a, n) = limits if k not in term.free_symbols: return term**(n - a + 1) if a == n: return term.subs(k, a) if term.has(KroneckerDelta) and _has_simple_delta(term, limits[0]): return deltaproduct(term, limits) dif = n - a if dif.is_Integer: return Mul(*[term.subs(k, a + i) for i in xrange(dif + 1)]) elif term.is_polynomial(k): poly = term.as_poly(k) A = B = Q = S.One all_roots = roots(poly, multiple=True) for r in all_roots: A *= C.RisingFactorial(a - r, n - a + 1) Q *= n - r if len(all_roots) < poly.degree(): arg = quo(poly, Q.as_poly(k)) B = Product(arg, (k, a, n)).doit() return poly.LC()**(n - a + 1) * A * B elif term.is_Add: p, q = term.as_numer_denom() p = self._eval_product(p, (k, a, n)) q = self._eval_product(q, (k, a, n)) return p / q elif term.is_Mul: exclude, include = [], [] for t in term.args: p = self._eval_product(t, (k, a, n)) if p is not None: exclude.append(p) else: include.append(t) if not exclude: return None else: arg = term._new_rawargs(*include) A = Mul(*exclude) B = Product(arg, (k, a, n)).doit() return A * B elif term.is_Pow: if not term.base.has(k): s = summation(term.exp, (k, a, n)) return term.base**s elif not term.exp.has(k): p = self._eval_product(term.base, (k, a, n)) if p is not None: return p**term.exp elif isinstance(term, Product): evaluated = term.doit() f = self._eval_product(evaluated, limits) if f is None: return Product(evaluated, limits) else: return f def _eval_transpose(self): if self.is_commutative: return Product(self.function.transpose(), *self.limits) return None def _eval_subs(self, old, new): from sympy.integrals.integrals import _eval_subs return _eval_subs(self, old, new)
[docs]def product(*args, **kwargs): r""" Compute the product. The notation for symbols is similiar to the notation used in Sum or Integral. product(f, (i, a, b)) computes the product of f with respect to i from a to b, i.e., :: b _____ product(f(n), (i, a, b)) = | | f(n) | | i = a If it cannot compute the product, it returns an unevaluated Product object. Repeated products can be computed by introducing additional symbols tuples:: >>> from sympy import product, symbols >>> i, n, m, k = symbols('i n m k', integer=True) >>> product(i, (i, 1, k)) factorial(k) >>> product(m, (i, 1, k)) m**k >>> product(i, (i, 1, k), (k, 1, n)) Product(factorial(k), (k, 1, n)) """ prod = Product(*args, **kwargs) if isinstance(prod, Product): return prod.doit(deep=False) else: return prod