Source code for sympy.printing.ccode

C code printer

The CCodePrinter converts single sympy expressions into single C expressions,
using the functions defined in math.h where possible.

A complete code generator, which uses ccode extensively, can be found in
sympy.utilities.codegen. The codegen module can be used to generate complete
source code files that are compilable without further modifications.


from __future__ import print_function, division

from sympy.core import S
from sympy.core.compatibility import string_types
from sympy.printing.codeprinter import CodePrinter, Assignment
from sympy.printing.precedence import precedence

# dictionary mapping sympy function to (argument_conditions, C_function).
# Used in CCodePrinter._print_Function(self)
known_functions = {
    "Abs": [(lambda x: not x.is_integer, "fabs")],
    "gamma": "tgamma",
    "sin": "sin",
    "cos": "cos",
    "tan": "tan",
    "asin": "asin",
    "acos": "acos",
    "atan": "atan",
    "atan2": "atan2",
    "exp": "exp",
    "log": "log",
    "erf": "erf",
    "sinh": "sinh",
    "cosh": "cosh",
    "tanh": "tanh",
    "asinh": "asinh",
    "acosh": "acosh",
    "atanh": "atanh",
    "floor": "floor",
    "ceiling": "ceil",

# These are the core reserved words in the C language. Taken from:

reserved_words = ['auto',

[docs]class CCodePrinter(CodePrinter): """A printer to convert python expressions to strings of c code""" printmethod = "_ccode" language = "C" _default_settings = { 'order': None, 'full_prec': 'auto', 'precision': 15, 'user_functions': {}, 'human': True, 'contract': True, 'dereference': set(), 'error_on_reserved': False, 'reserved_word_suffix': '_', } def __init__(self, settings={}): CodePrinter.__init__(self, settings) self.known_functions = dict(known_functions) userfuncs = settings.get('user_functions', {}) self.known_functions.update(userfuncs) self._dereference = set(settings.get('dereference', [])) self.reserved_words = set(reserved_words) def _rate_index_position(self, p): return p*5 def _get_statement(self, codestring): return "%s;" % codestring def _get_comment(self, text): return "// {0}".format(text) def _declare_number_const(self, name, value): return "double const {0} = {1};".format(name, value) def _format_code(self, lines): return self.indent_code(lines) def _traverse_matrix_indices(self, mat): rows, cols = mat.shape return ((i, j) for i in range(rows) for j in range(cols)) def _get_loop_opening_ending(self, indices): open_lines = [] close_lines = [] loopstart = "for (int %(var)s=%(start)s; %(var)s<%(end)s; %(var)s++){" for i in indices: # C arrays start at 0 and end at dimension-1 open_lines.append(loopstart % { 'var': self._print(i.label), 'start': self._print(i.lower), 'end': self._print(i.upper + 1)}) close_lines.append("}") return open_lines, close_lines def _print_Pow(self, expr): if "Pow" in self.known_functions: return self._print_Function(expr) PREC = precedence(expr) if expr.exp == -1: return '1.0/%s' % (self.parenthesize(expr.base, PREC)) elif expr.exp == 0.5: return 'sqrt(%s)' % self._print(expr.base) else: return 'pow(%s, %s)' % (self._print(expr.base), self._print(expr.exp)) def _print_Rational(self, expr): p, q = int(expr.p), int(expr.q) return '%d.0L/%d.0L' % (p, q) def _print_Indexed(self, expr): # calculate index for 1d array dims = expr.shape elem = S.Zero offset = S.One for i in reversed(range(expr.rank)): elem += expr.indices[i]*offset offset *= dims[i] return "%s[%s]" % (self._print(expr.base.label), self._print(elem)) def _print_Idx(self, expr): return self._print(expr.label) def _print_Exp1(self, expr): return "M_E" def _print_Pi(self, expr): return 'M_PI' def _print_Infinity(self, expr): return 'HUGE_VAL' def _print_NegativeInfinity(self, expr): return '-HUGE_VAL' def _print_Piecewise(self, expr): if expr.args[-1].cond != True: # We need the last conditional to be a True, otherwise the resulting # function may not return a result. raise ValueError("All Piecewise expressions must contain an " "(expr, True) statement to be used as a default " "condition. Without one, the generated " "expression may not evaluate to anything under " "some condition.") lines = [] if expr.has(Assignment): for i, (e, c) in enumerate(expr.args): if i == 0: lines.append("if (%s) {" % self._print(c)) elif i == len(expr.args) - 1 and c == True: lines.append("else {") else: lines.append("else if (%s) {" % self._print(c)) code0 = self._print(e) lines.append(code0) lines.append("}") return "\n".join(lines) else: # The piecewise was used in an expression, need to do inline # operators. This has the downside that inline operators will # not work for statements that span multiple lines (Matrix or # Indexed expressions). ecpairs = ["((%s) ? (\n%s\n)\n" % (self._print(c), self._print(e)) for e, c in expr.args[:-1]] last_line = ": (\n%s\n)" % self._print(expr.args[-1].expr) return ": ".join(ecpairs) + last_line + " ".join([")"*len(ecpairs)]) def _print_MatrixElement(self, expr): return "{0}[{1}]".format(expr.parent, expr.j + expr.i*expr.parent.shape[1]) def _print_Symbol(self, expr): name = super(CCodePrinter, self)._print_Symbol(expr) if expr in self._dereference: return '(*{0})'.format(name) else: return name def _print_sign(self, func): return '((({0}) > 0) - (({0}) < 0))'.format(self._print(func.args[0]))
[docs] def indent_code(self, code): """Accepts a string of code or a list of code lines""" if isinstance(code, string_types): code_lines = self.indent_code(code.splitlines(True)) return ''.join(code_lines) tab = " " inc_token = ('{', '(', '{\n', '(\n') dec_token = ('}', ')') code = [ line.lstrip(' \t') for line in code ] increase = [ int(any(map(line.endswith, inc_token))) for line in code ] decrease = [ int(any(map(line.startswith, dec_token))) for line in code ] pretty = [] level = 0 for n, line in enumerate(code): if line == '' or line == '\n': pretty.append(line) continue level -= decrease[n] pretty.append("%s%s" % (tab*level, line)) level += increase[n] return pretty
[docs]def ccode(expr, assign_to=None, **settings): """Converts an expr to a string of c code Parameters ========== expr : Expr A sympy expression to be converted. assign_to : optional When given, the argument is used as the name of the variable to which the expression is assigned. Can be a string, ``Symbol``, ``MatrixSymbol``, or ``Indexed`` type. This is helpful in case of line-wrapping, or for expressions that generate multi-line statements. precision : integer, optional The precision for numbers such as pi [default=15]. user_functions : dict, optional A dictionary where keys are ``FunctionClass`` instances and values are their string representations. Alternatively, the dictionary value can be a list of tuples i.e. [(argument_test, cfunction_string)]. See below for examples. dereference : iterable, optional An iterable of symbols that should be dereferenced in the printed code expression. These would be values passed by address to the function. For example, if ``dereference=[a]``, the resulting code would print ``(*a)`` instead of ``a``. human : bool, optional If True, the result is a single string that may contain some constant declarations for the number symbols. If False, the same information is returned in a tuple of (symbols_to_declare, not_supported_functions, code_text). [default=True]. contract: bool, optional If True, ``Indexed`` instances are assumed to obey tensor contraction rules and the corresponding nested loops over indices are generated. Setting contract=False will not generate loops, instead the user is responsible to provide values for the indices in the code. [default=True]. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import ccode, symbols, Rational, sin, ceiling, Abs >>> x, tau = symbols("x, tau") >>> ccode((2*tau)**Rational(7, 2)) '8*sqrt(2)*pow(tau, 7.0L/2.0L)' >>> ccode(sin(x), assign_to="s") 's = sin(x);' Custom printing can be defined for certain types by passing a dictionary of "type" : "function" to the ``user_functions`` kwarg. Alternatively, the dictionary value can be a list of tuples i.e. [(argument_test, cfunction_string)]. >>> custom_functions = { ... "ceiling": "CEIL", ... "Abs": [(lambda x: not x.is_integer, "fabs"), ... (lambda x: x.is_integer, "ABS")] ... } >>> ccode(Abs(x) + ceiling(x), user_functions=custom_functions) 'fabs(x) + CEIL(x)' ``Piecewise`` expressions are converted into conditionals. If an ``assign_to`` variable is provided an if statement is created, otherwise the ternary operator is used. Note that if the ``Piecewise`` lacks a default term, represented by ``(expr, True)`` then an error will be thrown. This is to prevent generating an expression that may not evaluate to anything. >>> from sympy import Piecewise >>> expr = Piecewise((x + 1, x > 0), (x, True)) >>> print(ccode(expr, tau)) if (x > 0) { tau = x + 1; } else { tau = x; } Support for loops is provided through ``Indexed`` types. With ``contract=True`` these expressions will be turned into loops, whereas ``contract=False`` will just print the assignment expression that should be looped over: >>> from sympy import Eq, IndexedBase, Idx >>> len_y = 5 >>> y = IndexedBase('y', shape=(len_y,)) >>> t = IndexedBase('t', shape=(len_y,)) >>> Dy = IndexedBase('Dy', shape=(len_y-1,)) >>> i = Idx('i', len_y-1) >>> e=Eq(Dy[i], (y[i+1]-y[i])/(t[i+1]-t[i])) >>> ccode(e.rhs, assign_to=e.lhs, contract=False) 'Dy[i] = (y[i + 1] - y[i])/(t[i + 1] - t[i]);' Matrices are also supported, but a ``MatrixSymbol`` of the same dimensions must be provided to ``assign_to``. Note that any expression that can be generated normally can also exist inside a Matrix: >>> from sympy import Matrix, MatrixSymbol >>> mat = Matrix([x**2, Piecewise((x + 1, x > 0), (x, True)), sin(x)]) >>> A = MatrixSymbol('A', 3, 1) >>> print(ccode(mat, A)) A[0] = pow(x, 2); if (x > 0) { A[1] = x + 1; } else { A[1] = x; } A[2] = sin(x); """ return CCodePrinter(settings).doprint(expr, assign_to)