# Qubit¶

Qubits for quantum computing.

Todo: * Finish implementing measurement logic. This should include POVM. * Update docstrings. * Update tests.

class sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.Qubit[source]

A multi-qubit ket in the computational (z) basis.

We use the normal convention that the least significant qubit is on the right, so |00001> has a 1 in the least significant qubit.

Parameters : values : list, str The qubit values as a list of ints ([0,0,0,1,1,]) or a string (‘011’).

Examples

Create a qubit in a couple of different ways and look at their attributes:

>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qubit import Qubit
>>> Qubit(0,0,0)
|000>
>>> q = Qubit('0101')
>>> q
|0101>
>>> q.nqubits
4
>>> len(q)
4
>>> q.dimension
4
>>> q.qubit_values
(0, 1, 0, 1)

We can flip the value of an individual qubit:

>>> q.flip(1)
|0111>

We can take the dagger of a Qubit to get a bra:

>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.dagger import Dagger
>>> Dagger(q)
<0101|
>>> type(Dagger(q))
<class 'sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.QubitBra'>

Inner products work as expected:

>>> ip = Dagger(q)*q
>>> ip
<0101|0101>
>>> ip.doit()
1
class sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.QubitBra[source]

A multi-qubit bra in the computational (z) basis.

We use the normal convention that the least significant qubit is on the right, so |00001> has a 1 in the least significant qubit.

Parameters : values : list, str The qubit values as a list of ints ([0,0,0,1,1,]) or a string (‘011’).

Qubit
Examples using qubits
class sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.IntQubit[source]

A qubit ket that store integers as binary numbers in qubit values.

The differences between this class and Qubit are:

• The form of the constructor.
• The qubit values are printed as their corresponding integer, rather than the raw qubit values. The internal storage format of the qubit values in the same as Qubit.
Parameters : values : int, tuple If a single argument, the integer we want to represent in the qubit values. This integer will be represented using the fewest possible number of qubits. If a pair of integers, the first integer gives the integer to represent in binary form and the second integer gives the number of qubits to use.

Examples

Create a qubit for the integer 5:

>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qubit import IntQubit
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qubit import Qubit
>>> q = IntQubit(5)
>>> q
|5>

We can also create an IntQubit by passing a Qubit instance.

>>> q = IntQubit(Qubit('101'))
>>> q
|5>
>>> q.as_int()
5
>>> q.nqubits
3
>>> q.qubit_values
(1, 0, 1)

We can go back to the regular qubit form.

>>> Qubit(q)
|101>
class sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.IntQubitBra[source]

A qubit bra that store integers as binary numbers in qubit values.

sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.qubit_to_matrix(qubit, format='sympy')[source]

Coverts an Add/Mul of Qubit objects into it’s matrix representation

This function is the inverse of matrix_to_qubit and is a shorthand for represent(qubit).

sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.matrix_to_qubit(matrix)[source]

Convert from the matrix repr. to a sum of Qubit objects.

Parameters : matrix : Matrix, numpy.matrix, scipy.sparse The matrix to build the Qubit representation of. This works with sympy matrices, numpy matrices and scipy.sparse sparse matrices.

Examples

Represent a state and then go back to its qubit form:

>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qubit import matrix_to_qubit, Qubit
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.gate import Z
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.represent import represent
>>> q = Qubit('01')
>>> matrix_to_qubit(represent(q))
|01>
sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.matrix_to_density(mat)[source]

Works by finding the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix. We know we can decompose rho by doing: sum(EigenVal*|Eigenvect><Eigenvect|)

sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.measure_all(qubit, format='sympy', normalize=True)[source]

Perform an ensemble measurement of all qubits.

Parameters : qubit : Qubit, Add The qubit to measure. This can be any Qubit or a linear combination of them. format : str The format of the intermediate matrices to use. Possible values are (‘sympy’,’numpy’,’scipy.sparse’). Currently only ‘sympy’ is implemented. result : list A list that consists of primitive states and their probabilities.

Examples

>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qubit import Qubit, measure_all
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.gate import H, X, Y, Z
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qapply import qapply
>>> c = H(0)*H(1)*Qubit('00')
>>> c
H(0)*H(1)*|00>
>>> q = qapply(c)
>>> measure_all(q)
[(|00>, 1/4), (|01>, 1/4), (|10>, 1/4), (|11>, 1/4)]
sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.measure_partial(qubit, bits, format='sympy', normalize=True)[source]

Perform a partial ensemble measure on the specifed qubits.

Parameters : qubits : Qubit The qubit to measure. This can be any Qubit or a linear combination of them. bits : tuple The qubits to measure. format : str The format of the intermediate matrices to use. Possible values are (‘sympy’,’numpy’,’scipy.sparse’). Currently only ‘sympy’ is implemented. result : list A list that consists of primitive states and their probabilities.

Examples

>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qubit import Qubit, measure_partial
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.gate import H, X, Y, Z
>>> from sympy.physics.quantum.qapply import qapply
>>> c = H(0)*H(1)*Qubit('00')
>>> c
H(0)*H(1)*|00>
>>> q = qapply(c)
>>> measure_partial(q, (0,))
[(sqrt(2)*|00>/2 + sqrt(2)*|10>/2, 1/2), (sqrt(2)*|01>/2 + sqrt(2)*|11>/2, 1/2)]
sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.measure_partial_oneshot(qubit, bits, format='sympy')[source]

Perform a partial oneshot measurement on the specified qubits.

A oneshot measurement is equivalent to performing a measurement on a quantum system. This type of measurement does not return the probabilities like an ensemble measurement does, but rather returns one of the possible resulting states. The exact state that is returned is determined by picking a state randomly according to the ensemble probabilities.

Parameters : qubits : Qubit The qubit to measure. This can be any Qubit or a linear combination of them. bits : tuple The qubits to measure. format : str The format of the intermediate matrices to use. Possible values are (‘sympy’,’numpy’,’scipy.sparse’). Currently only ‘sympy’ is implemented. result : Qubit The qubit that the system collapsed to upon measurement.
sympy.physics.quantum.qubit.measure_all_oneshot(qubit, format='sympy')[source]

Perform a oneshot ensemble measurement on all qubits.

A oneshot measurement is equivalent to performing a measurement on a quantum system. This type of measurement does not return the probabilities like an ensemble measurement does, but rather returns one of the possible resulting states. The exact state that is returned is determined by picking a state randomly according to the ensemble probabilities.

Parameters : qubits : Qubit The qubit to measure. This can be any Qubit or a linear combination of them. format : str The format of the intermediate matrices to use. Possible values are (‘sympy’,’numpy’,’scipy.sparse’). Currently only ‘sympy’ is implemented. result : Qubit The qubit that the system collapsed to upon measurement.

QFT

Shor’s Algorithm