# Source code for sympy.series.fourier

"""Fourier Series"""

from __future__ import print_function, division

from sympy import pi, oo
from sympy.core.expr import Expr
from sympy.core.sympify import sympify
from sympy.core.singleton import S
from sympy.core.symbol import Dummy, Symbol
from sympy.core.compatibility import is_sequence
from sympy.core.containers import Tuple
from sympy.functions.elementary.trigonometric import sin, cos, sinc
from sympy.sets.sets import Interval
from sympy.series.series_class import SeriesBase
from sympy.series.sequences import SeqFormula

def fourier_cos_seq(func, limits, n):
"""Returns the cos sequence in a Fourier series"""
from sympy.integrals import integrate
x, L = limits[0], limits[2] - limits[1]
cos_term = cos(2*n*pi*x / L)
formula = 2 * cos_term * integrate(func * cos_term, limits) / L
a0 = formula.subs(n, S.Zero) / 2
return a0, SeqFormula(2 * cos_term * integrate(func * cos_term, limits)
/ L, (n, 1, oo))

def fourier_sin_seq(func, limits, n):
"""Returns the sin sequence in a Fourier series"""
from sympy.integrals import integrate
x, L = limits[0], limits[2] - limits[1]
sin_term = sin(2*n*pi*x / L)
return SeqFormula(2 * sin_term * integrate(func * sin_term, limits)
/ L, (n, 1, oo))

def _process_limits(func, limits):
"""
Limits should be of the form (x, start, stop).
x should be a symbol. Both start and stop should be bounded.

* If x is not given, x is determined from func.
* If limits is None. Limit of the form (x, -pi, pi) is returned.

Examples
========

>>> from sympy import pi
>>> from sympy.series.fourier import _process_limits as pari
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> pari(x**2, (x, -2, 2))
(x, -2, 2)
>>> pari(x**2, (-2, 2))
(x, -2, 2)
>>> pari(x**2, None)
(x, -pi, pi)
"""
def _find_x(func):
free = func.free_symbols
if len(func.free_symbols) == 1:
return free.pop()
elif len(func.free_symbols) == 0:
return Dummy('k')
else:
raise ValueError(
" specify dummy variables for %s. If the function contains"
" more than one free symbol, a dummy variable should be"
" supplied explicitly e.g. FourierSeries(m*n**2, (n, -pi, pi))"
% func)

x, start, stop = None, None, None
if limits is None:
x, start, stop = _find_x(func), -pi, pi
if is_sequence(limits, Tuple):
if len(limits) == 3:
x, start, stop = limits
elif len(limits) == 2:
x = _find_x(func)
start, stop = limits

if not isinstance(x, Symbol) or start is None or stop is None:
raise ValueError('Invalid limits given: %s' % str(limits))

unbounded = [S.NegativeInfinity, S.Infinity]
if start in unbounded or stop in unbounded:
raise ValueError("Both the start and end value should be bounded")

return sympify((x, start, stop))

[docs]class FourierSeries(SeriesBase): r"""Represents Fourier sine/cosine series. This class only represents a fourier series. No computation is performed. For how to compute Fourier series, see the :func:fourier_series docstring. See Also ======== sympy.series.fourier.fourier_series """ def __new__(cls, *args): args = map(sympify, args) return Expr.__new__(cls, *args) @property def function(self): return self.args[0] @property def x(self): return self.args[1][0] @property def period(self): return (self.args[1][1], self.args[1][2]) @property def a0(self): return self.args[2][0] @property def an(self): return self.args[2][1] @property def bn(self): return self.args[2][2] @property def interval(self): return Interval(0, oo) @property def start(self): return self.interval.inf @property def stop(self): return self.interval.sup @property def length(self): return oo def _eval_subs(self, old, new): x = self.x if old.has(x): return self
[docs] def truncate(self, n=3): """ Return the first n nonzero terms of the series. If n is None return an iterator. Parameters ========== n : int or None Amount of non-zero terms in approximation or None. Returns ======= Expr or iterator Approximation of function expanded into Fourier series. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.truncate(4) 2*sin(x) - sin(2*x) + 2*sin(3*x)/3 - sin(4*x)/2 See Also ======== sympy.series.fourier.FourierSeries.sigma_approximation """ if n is None: return iter(self) terms = [] for t in self: if len(terms) == n: break if t is not S.Zero: terms.append(t) return Add(*terms)
[docs] def sigma_approximation(self, n=3): r""" Return :math:\sigma-approximation of Fourier series with respect to order n. Sigma approximation adjusts a Fourier summation to eliminate the Gibbs phenomenon which would otherwise occur at discontinuities. A sigma-approximated summation for a Fourier series of a T-periodical function can be written as .. math:: s(\theta) = \frac{1}{2} a_0 + \sum _{k=1}^{m-1} \operatorname{sinc} \Bigl( \frac{k}{m} \Bigr) \cdot \left[ a_k \cos \Bigl( \frac{2\pi k}{T} \theta \Bigr) + b_k \sin \Bigl( \frac{2\pi k}{T} \theta \Bigr) \right], where :math:a_0, a_k, b_k, k=1,\ldots,{m-1} are standard Fourier series coefficients and :math:\operatorname{sinc} \Bigl( \frac{k}{m} \Bigr) is a Lanczos :math:\sigma factor (expressed in terms of normalized :math:\operatorname{sinc} function). Parameters ========== n : int Highest order of the terms taken into account in approximation. Returns ======= Expr Sigma approximation of function expanded into Fourier series. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.sigma_approximation(4) 2*sin(x)*sinc(pi/4) - 2*sin(2*x)/pi + 2*sin(3*x)*sinc(3*pi/4)/3 See Also ======== sympy.series.fourier.FourierSeries.truncate Notes ===== The behaviour of :meth:~sympy.series.fourier.FourierSeries.sigma_approximation is different from :meth:~sympy.series.fourier.FourierSeries.truncate - it takes all nonzero terms of degree smaller than n, rather than first n nonzero ones. References ========== .. [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbs_phenomenon .. [2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigma_approximation """ terms = [sinc(pi * i / n) * t for i, t in enumerate(self[:n]) if t is not S.Zero] return Add(*terms)
[docs] def shift(self, s): """Shift the function by a term independent of x. f(x) -> f(x) + s This is fast, if Fourier series of f(x) is already computed. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x**2, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.shift(1).truncate() -4*cos(x) + cos(2*x) + 1 + pi**2/3 """ s, x = sympify(s), self.x if x in s.free_symbols: raise ValueError("'%s' should be independent of %s" % (s, x)) a0 = self.a0 + s sfunc = self.function + s return self.func(sfunc, self.args[1], (a0, self.an, self.bn))
[docs] def shiftx(self, s): """Shift x by a term independent of x. f(x) -> f(x + s) This is fast, if Fourier series of f(x) is already computed. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x**2, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.shiftx(1).truncate() -4*cos(x + 1) + cos(2*x + 2) + pi**2/3 """ s, x = sympify(s), self.x if x in s.free_symbols: raise ValueError("'%s' should be independent of %s" % (s, x)) an = self.an.subs(x, x + s) bn = self.bn.subs(x, x + s) sfunc = self.function.subs(x, x + s) return self.func(sfunc, self.args[1], (self.a0, an, bn))
[docs] def scale(self, s): """Scale the function by a term independent of x. f(x) -> s * f(x) This is fast, if Fourier series of f(x) is already computed. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x**2, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.scale(2).truncate() -8*cos(x) + 2*cos(2*x) + 2*pi**2/3 """ s, x = sympify(s), self.x if x in s.free_symbols: raise ValueError("'%s' should be independent of %s" % (s, x)) an = self.an.coeff_mul(s) bn = self.bn.coeff_mul(s) a0 = self.a0 * s sfunc = self.args[0] * s return self.func(sfunc, self.args[1], (a0, an, bn))
[docs] def scalex(self, s): """Scale x by a term independent of x. f(x) -> f(s*x) This is fast, if Fourier series of f(x) is already computed. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x**2, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.scalex(2).truncate() -4*cos(2*x) + cos(4*x) + pi**2/3 """ s, x = sympify(s), self.x if x in s.free_symbols: raise ValueError("'%s' should be independent of %s" % (s, x)) an = self.an.subs(x, x * s) bn = self.bn.subs(x, x * s) sfunc = self.function.subs(x, x * s) return self.func(sfunc, self.args[1], (self.a0, an, bn))
def _eval_as_leading_term(self, x): for t in self: if t is not S.Zero: return t def _eval_term(self, pt): if pt == 0: return self.a0 return self.an.coeff(pt) + self.bn.coeff(pt) def __neg__(self): return self.scale(-1) def __add__(self, other): if isinstance(other, FourierSeries): if self.period != other.period: raise ValueError("Both the series should have same periods") x, y = self.x, other.x function = self.function + other.function.subs(y, x) if self.x not in function.free_symbols: return function an = self.an + other.an bn = self.bn + other.bn a0 = self.a0 + other.a0 return self.func(function, self.args[1], (a0, an, bn)) return Add(self, other) def __sub__(self, other): return self.__add__(-other)
[docs]def fourier_series(f, limits=None): """Computes Fourier sine/cosine series expansion. Returns a :class:FourierSeries object. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import fourier_series, pi, cos >>> from sympy.abc import x >>> s = fourier_series(x**2, (x, -pi, pi)) >>> s.truncate(n=3) -4*cos(x) + cos(2*x) + pi**2/3 Shifting >>> s.shift(1).truncate() -4*cos(x) + cos(2*x) + 1 + pi**2/3 >>> s.shiftx(1).truncate() -4*cos(x + 1) + cos(2*x + 2) + pi**2/3 Scaling >>> s.scale(2).truncate() -8*cos(x) + 2*cos(2*x) + 2*pi**2/3 >>> s.scalex(2).truncate() -4*cos(2*x) + cos(4*x) + pi**2/3 Notes ===== Computing Fourier series can be slow due to the integration required in computing an, bn. It is faster to compute Fourier series of a function by using shifting and scaling on an already computed Fourier series rather than computing again. e.g. If the Fourier series of x**2 is known the Fourier series of x**2 - 1 can be found by shifting by -1. See Also ======== sympy.series.fourier.FourierSeries References ========== .. [1] mathworld.wolfram.com/FourierSeries.html """ f = sympify(f) limits = _process_limits(f, limits) x = limits[0] if x not in f.free_symbols: return f n = Dummy('n') neg_f = f.subs(x, -x) if f == neg_f: a0, an = fourier_cos_seq(f, limits, n) bn = SeqFormula(0, (1, oo)) elif f == -neg_f: a0 = S.Zero an = SeqFormula(0, (1, oo)) bn = fourier_sin_seq(f, limits, n) else: a0, an = fourier_cos_seq(f, limits, n) bn = fourier_sin_seq(f, limits, n) return FourierSeries(f, limits, (a0, an, bn))