# Plane¶

Geometrical Planes.

## Contains¶

Plane

class sympy.geometry.plane.Plane[source]

A plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface. A plane is the two-dimensional analogue of a point (zero-dimensions), a line (one-dimension) and a solid (three-dimensions). A plane can generally be constructed by two types of inputs. They are three non-collinear points and a point and the plane’s normal vector.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), Point3D(2, 3, 4), Point3D(2, 2, 2))
Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), (-1, 2, -1))
>>> Plane((1, 1, 1), (2, 3, 4), (2, 2, 2))
Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), (-1, 2, -1))
>>> Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), normal_vector=(1,4,7))
Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), (1, 4, 7))


Attributes

 p1 normal_vector
angle_between(o)[source]

Angle between the plane and other geometric entity.

Parameters: LinearEntity3D, Plane. angle : angle in radians

Notes

This method accepts only 3D entities as it’s parameter, but if you want to calculate the angle between a 2D entity and a plane you should first convert to a 3D entity by projecting onto a desired plane and then proceed to calculate the angle.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Point3D, Line3D, Plane
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 2, 2), normal_vector=(1, 2, 3))
>>> b = Line3D(Point3D(1, 3, 4), Point3D(2, 2, 2))
>>> a.angle_between(b)
-asin(sqrt(21)/6)

arbitrary_point(t=None)[source]

Returns an arbitrary point on the Plane; varying $$t$$ from 0 to 2*pi will move the point in a circle of radius 1 about p1 of the Plane.

Returns: Point3D

Examples

>>> from sympy.geometry.plane import Plane
>>> from sympy.abc import t
>>> p = Plane((0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (0, 1, 0))
>>> p.arbitrary_point(t)
Point3D(0, cos(t), sin(t))
>>> _.distance(p.p1).simplify()
1

static are_concurrent(*planes)[source]

Is a sequence of Planes concurrent?

Two or more Planes are concurrent if their intersections are a common line.

Parameters: planes: list Boolean

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(5, 0, 0), normal_vector=(1, -1, 1))
>>> b = Plane(Point3D(0, -2, 0), normal_vector=(3, 1, 1))
>>> c = Plane(Point3D(0, -1, 0), normal_vector=(5, -1, 9))
>>> Plane.are_concurrent(a, b)
True
>>> Plane.are_concurrent(a, b, c)
False

distance(o)[source]

Distance beteen the plane and another geometric entity.

Parameters: Point3D, LinearEntity3D, Plane. distance

Notes

This method accepts only 3D entities as it’s parameter, but if you want to calculate the distance between a 2D entity and a plane you should first convert to a 3D entity by projecting onto a desired plane and then proceed to calculate the distance.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Point, Point3D, Line, Line3D, Plane
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), normal_vector=(1, 1, 1))
>>> b = Point3D(1, 2, 3)
>>> a.distance(b)
sqrt(3)
>>> c = Line3D(Point3D(2, 3, 1), Point3D(1, 2, 2))
>>> a.distance(c)
0

equals(o)[source]

Returns True if self and o are the same mathematical entities.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 2, 3), normal_vector=(1, 1, 1))
>>> b = Plane(Point3D(1, 2, 3), normal_vector=(2, 2, 2))
>>> c = Plane(Point3D(1, 2, 3), normal_vector=(-1, 4, 6))
>>> a.equals(a)
True
>>> a.equals(b)
True
>>> a.equals(c)
False

equation(x=None, y=None, z=None)[source]

The equation of the Plane.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Point3D, Plane
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 2), Point3D(2, 4, 7), Point3D(3, 5, 1))
>>> a.equation()
-23*x + 11*y - 2*z + 16
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 4, 2), normal_vector=(6, 6, 6))
>>> a.equation()
6*x + 6*y + 6*z - 42

intersection(o)[source]

The intersection with other geometrical entity.

Parameters: Point, Point3D, LinearEntity, LinearEntity3D, Plane List

Examples

>>> from sympy import Point, Point3D, Line, Line3D, Plane
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 2, 3), normal_vector=(1, 1, 1))
>>> b = Point3D(1, 2, 3)
>>> a.intersection(b)
[Point3D(1, 2, 3)]
>>> c = Line3D(Point3D(1, 4, 7), Point3D(2, 2, 2))
>>> a.intersection(c)
[Point3D(2, 2, 2)]
>>> d = Plane(Point3D(6, 0, 0), normal_vector=(2, -5, 3))
>>> e = Plane(Point3D(2, 0, 0), normal_vector=(3, 4, -3))
>>> d.intersection(e)
[Line3D(Point3D(78/23, -24/23, 0), Point3D(147/23, 321/23, 23))]

is_coplanar(o)[source]

Returns True if $$o$$ is coplanar with self, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> o = (0, 0, 0)
>>> p = Plane(o, (1, 1, 1))
>>> p2 = Plane(o, (2, 2, 2))
>>> p == p2
False
>>> p.is_coplanar(p2)
True

is_parallel(l)[source]

Is the given geometric entity parallel to the plane?

Parameters: LinearEntity3D or Plane Boolean

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1,4,6), normal_vector=(2, 4, 6))
>>> b = Plane(Point3D(3,1,3), normal_vector=(4, 8, 12))
>>> a.is_parallel(b)
True

is_perpendicular(l)[source]

is the given geometric entity perpendicualar to the given plane?

Parameters: LinearEntity3D or Plane Boolean

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1,4,6), normal_vector=(2, 4, 6))
>>> b = Plane(Point3D(2, 2, 2), normal_vector=(-1, 2, -1))
>>> a.is_perpendicular(b)
True

normal_vector

Normal vector of the given plane.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Point3D, Plane
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), Point3D(2, 3, 4), Point3D(2, 2, 2))
>>> a.normal_vector
(-1, 2, -1)
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), normal_vector=(1, 4, 7))
>>> a.normal_vector
(1, 4, 7)

p1

The only defining point of the plane. Others can be obtained from the arbitrary_point method.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Point3D, Plane
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), Point3D(2, 3, 4), Point3D(2, 2, 2))
>>> a.p1
Point3D(1, 1, 1)

parallel_plane(pt)[source]

Plane parallel to the given plane and passing through the point pt.

Parameters: pt: Point3D Plane

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 4, 6), normal_vector=(2, 4, 6))
>>> a.parallel_plane(Point3D(2, 3, 5))
Plane(Point3D(2, 3, 5), (2, 4, 6))

perpendicular_line(pt)[source]

A line perpendicular to the given plane.

Parameters: pt: Point3D Line3D

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D, Line3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1,4,6), normal_vector=(2, 4, 6))
>>> a.perpendicular_line(Point3D(9, 8, 7))
Line3D(Point3D(9, 8, 7), Point3D(11, 12, 13))

perpendicular_plane(*pts)[source]

Return a perpendicular passing through the given points. If the direction ratio between the points is the same as the Plane’s normal vector then, to select from the infinite number of possible planes, a third point will be chosen on the z-axis (or the y-axis if the normal vector is already parallel to the z-axis). If less than two points are given they will be supplied as follows: if no point is given then pt1 will be self.p1; if a second point is not given it will be a point through pt1 on a line parallel to the z-axis (if the normal is not already the z-axis, otherwise on the line parallel to the y-axis).

Parameters: pts: 0, 1 or 2 Point3D Plane

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point3D, Line3D
>>> a, b = Point3D(0, 0, 0), Point3D(0, 1, 0)
>>> Z = (0, 0, 1)
>>> p = Plane(a, normal_vector=Z)
>>> p.perpendicular_plane(a, b)
Plane(Point3D(0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0))

projection(pt)[source]

Project the given point onto the plane along the plane normal.

Parameters: Point or Point3D Point3D

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Point, Point3D
>>> A = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 2), normal_vector=(1, 1, 1))


The projection is along the normal vector direction, not the z axis, so (1, 1) does not project to (1, 1, 2) on the plane A:

>>> b = Point3D(1, 1)
>>> A.projection(b)
Point3D(5/3, 5/3, 2/3)
>>> _ in A
True


But the point (1, 1, 2) projects to (1, 1) on the XY-plane:

>>> XY = Plane((0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1))
>>> XY.projection((1, 1, 2))
Point3D(1, 1, 0)

projection_line(line)[source]

Project the given line onto the plane through the normal plane containing the line.

Parameters: LinearEntity or LinearEntity3D Point3D, Line3D, Ray3D or Segment3D

Notes

For the interaction between 2D and 3D lines(segments, rays), you should convert the line to 3D by using this method. For example for finding the intersection between a 2D and a 3D line, convert the 2D line to a 3D line by projecting it on a required plane and then proceed to find the intersection between those lines.

Examples

>>> from sympy import Plane, Line, Line3D, Point, Point3D
>>> a = Plane(Point3D(1, 1, 1), normal_vector=(1, 1, 1))
>>> b = Line(Point3D(1, 1), Point3D(2, 2))
>>> a.projection_line(b)
Line3D(Point3D(4/3, 4/3, 1/3), Point3D(5/3, 5/3, -1/3))
>>> c = Line3D(Point3D(1, 1, 1), Point3D(2, 2, 2))
>>> a.projection_line(c)
Point3D(1, 1, 1)

random_point(seed=None)[source]

Returns a random point on the Plane.

Returns: Point3D