Source code for sympy.concrete.summations

from __future__ import print_function, division

from sympy.concrete.expr_with_limits import AddWithLimits
from sympy.concrete.expr_with_intlimits import ExprWithIntLimits
from sympy.core.function import Derivative
from sympy.core.relational import Eq
from sympy.core.singleton import S
from sympy.core.symbol import Dummy, Wild, Symbol
from sympy.core.add import Add
from sympy.core.mul import Mul
from sympy.calculus.singularities import is_decreasing
from sympy.concrete.gosper import gosper_sum
from sympy.functions.special.zeta_functions import zeta
from sympy.functions.elementary.piecewise import Piecewise
from sympy.logic.boolalg import And
from sympy.polys import apart, PolynomialError
from sympy.series.limits import limit
from sympy.series.order import O
from sympy.sets.sets import FiniteSet
from sympy.simplify.combsimp import combsimp
from sympy.simplify.powsimp import powsimp
from sympy.solvers import solve
from sympy.solvers.solveset import solveset
from sympy.core.compatibility import range
from sympy.calculus.util import AccumulationBounds
import itertools

[docs]class Sum(AddWithLimits, ExprWithIntLimits): r"""Represents unevaluated summation. ``Sum`` represents a finite or infinite series, with the first argument being the general form of terms in the series, and the second argument being ``(dummy_variable, start, end)``, with ``dummy_variable`` taking all integer values from ``start`` through ``end``. In accordance with long-standing mathematical convention, the end term is included in the summation. Finite sums =========== For finite sums (and sums with symbolic limits assumed to be finite) we follow the summation convention described by Karr [1], especially definition 3 of section 1.4. The sum: .. math:: \sum_{m \leq i < n} f(i) has *the obvious meaning* for `m < n`, namely: .. math:: \sum_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = f(m) + f(m+1) + \ldots + f(n-2) + f(n-1) with the upper limit value `f(n)` excluded. The sum over an empty set is zero if and only if `m = n`: .. math:: \sum_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = 0 \quad \mathrm{for} \quad m = n Finally, for all other sums over empty sets we assume the following definition: .. math:: \sum_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = - \sum_{n \leq i < m} f(i) \quad \mathrm{for} \quad m > n It is important to note that Karr defines all sums with the upper limit being exclusive. This is in contrast to the usual mathematical notation, but does not affect the summation convention. Indeed we have: .. math:: \sum_{m \leq i < n} f(i) = \sum_{i = m}^{n - 1} f(i) where the difference in notation is intentional to emphasize the meaning, with limits typeset on the top being inclusive. Examples ======== >>> from import i, k, m, n, x >>> from sympy import Sum, factorial, oo, IndexedBase, Function >>> Sum(k, (k, 1, m)) Sum(k, (k, 1, m)) >>> Sum(k, (k, 1, m)).doit() m**2/2 + m/2 >>> Sum(k**2, (k, 1, m)) Sum(k**2, (k, 1, m)) >>> Sum(k**2, (k, 1, m)).doit() m**3/3 + m**2/2 + m/6 >>> Sum(x**k, (k, 0, oo)) Sum(x**k, (k, 0, oo)) >>> Sum(x**k, (k, 0, oo)).doit() Piecewise((1/(-x + 1), Abs(x) < 1), (Sum(x**k, (k, 0, oo)), True)) >>> Sum(x**k/factorial(k), (k, 0, oo)).doit() exp(x) Here are examples to do summation with symbolic indices. You can use either Function of IndexedBase classes: >>> f = Function('f') >>> Sum(f(n), (n, 0, 3)).doit() f(0) + f(1) + f(2) + f(3) >>> Sum(f(n), (n, 0, oo)).doit() Sum(f(n), (n, 0, oo)) >>> f = IndexedBase('f') >>> Sum(f[n]**2, (n, 0, 3)).doit() f[0]**2 + f[1]**2 + f[2]**2 + f[3]**2 An example showing that the symbolic result of a summation is still valid for seemingly nonsensical values of the limits. Then the Karr convention allows us to give a perfectly valid interpretation to those sums by interchanging the limits according to the above rules: >>> S = Sum(i, (i, 1, n)).doit() >>> S n**2/2 + n/2 >>> S.subs(n, -4) 6 >>> Sum(i, (i, 1, -4)).doit() 6 >>> Sum(-i, (i, -3, 0)).doit() 6 An explicit example of the Karr summation convention: >>> S1 = Sum(i**2, (i, m, m+n-1)).doit() >>> S1 m**2*n + m*n**2 - m*n + n**3/3 - n**2/2 + n/6 >>> S2 = Sum(i**2, (i, m+n, m-1)).doit() >>> S2 -m**2*n - m*n**2 + m*n - n**3/3 + n**2/2 - n/6 >>> S1 + S2 0 >>> S3 = Sum(i, (i, m, m-1)).doit() >>> S3 0 See Also ======== summation Product, product References ========== .. [1] Michael Karr, "Summation in Finite Terms", Journal of the ACM, Volume 28 Issue 2, April 1981, Pages 305-350 .. [2] .. [3] """ __slots__ = ['is_commutative'] def __new__(cls, function, *symbols, **assumptions): obj = AddWithLimits.__new__(cls, function, *symbols, **assumptions) if not hasattr(obj, 'limits'): return obj if any(len(l) != 3 or None in l for l in obj.limits): raise ValueError('Sum requires values for lower and upper bounds.') return obj def _eval_is_zero(self): # a Sum is only zero if its function is zero or if all terms # cancel out. This only answers whether the summand is zero; if # not then None is returned since we don't analyze whether all # terms cancel out. if self.function.is_zero: return True def doit(self, **hints): if hints.get('deep', True): f = self.function.doit(**hints) else: f = self.function if self.function.is_Matrix: return self.expand().doit() for n, limit in enumerate(self.limits): i, a, b = limit dif = b - a if dif.is_integer and (dif < 0) == True: a, b = b + 1, a - 1 f = -f newf = eval_sum(f, (i, a, b)) if newf is None: if f == self.function: zeta_function = self.eval_zeta_function(f, (i, a, b)) if zeta_function is not None: return zeta_function return self else: return self.func(f, *self.limits[n:]) f = newf if hints.get('deep', True): # eval_sum could return partially unevaluated # result with Piecewise. In this case we won't # doit() recursively. if not isinstance(f, Piecewise): return f.doit(**hints) return f
[docs] def eval_zeta_function(self, f, limits): """ Check whether the function matches with the zeta function. If it matches, then return a `Piecewise` expression because zeta function does not converge unless `s > 1` and `q > 0` """ i, a, b = limits w, y, z = Wild('w', exclude=[i]), Wild('y', exclude=[i]), Wild('z', exclude=[i]) result = f.match((w * i + y) ** (-z)) if result is not None and b == S.Infinity: coeff = 1 / result[w] ** result[z] s = result[z] q = result[y] / result[w] + a return Piecewise((coeff * zeta(s, q), And(q > 0, s > 1)), (self, True))
def _eval_derivative(self, x): """ Differentiate wrt x as long as x is not in the free symbols of any of the upper or lower limits. Sum(a*b*x, (x, 1, a)) can be differentiated wrt x or b but not `a` since the value of the sum is discontinuous in `a`. In a case involving a limit variable, the unevaluated derivative is returned. """ # diff already confirmed that x is in the free symbols of self, but we # don't want to differentiate wrt any free symbol in the upper or lower # limits # XXX remove this test for free_symbols when the default _eval_derivative is in if isinstance(x, Symbol) and x not in self.free_symbols: return S.Zero # get limits and the function f, limits = self.function, list(self.limits) limit = limits.pop(-1) if limits: # f is the argument to a Sum f = self.func(f, *limits) if len(limit) == 3: _, a, b = limit if x in a.free_symbols or x in b.free_symbols: return None df = Derivative(f, x, evaluate=True) rv = self.func(df, limit) return rv else: return NotImplementedError('Lower and upper bound expected.') def _eval_difference_delta(self, n, step): k, _, upper = self.args[-1] new_upper = upper.subs(n, n + step) if len(self.args) == 2: f = self.args[0] else: f = self.func(*self.args[:-1]) return Sum(f, (k, upper + 1, new_upper)).doit() def _eval_simplify(self, ratio=1.7, measure=None): from sympy.simplify.simplify import factor_sum, sum_combine from sympy.core.function import expand from sympy.core.mul import Mul # split the function into adds terms = Add.make_args(expand(self.function)) s_t = [] # Sum Terms o_t = [] # Other Terms for term in terms: if term.has(Sum): # if there is an embedded sum here # it is of the form x * (Sum(whatever)) # hence we make a Mul out of it, and simplify all interior sum terms subterms = Mul.make_args(expand(term)) out_terms = [] for subterm in subterms: # go through each term if isinstance(subterm, Sum): # if it's a sum, simplify it out_terms.append(subterm._eval_simplify()) else: # otherwise, add it as is out_terms.append(subterm) # turn it back into a Mul s_t.append(Mul(*out_terms)) else: o_t.append(term) # next try to combine any interior sums for further simplification result = Add(sum_combine(s_t), *o_t) return factor_sum(result, limits=self.limits) def _eval_summation(self, f, x): return None
[docs] def is_convergent(self): r"""Checks for the convergence of a Sum. We divide the study of convergence of infinite sums and products in two parts. First Part: One part is the question whether all the terms are well defined, i.e., they are finite in a sum and also non-zero in a product. Zero is the analogy of (minus) infinity in products as :math:`e^{-\infty} = 0`. Second Part: The second part is the question of convergence after infinities, and zeros in products, have been omitted assuming that their number is finite. This means that we only consider the tail of the sum or product, starting from some point after which all terms are well defined. For example, in a sum of the form: .. math:: \sum_{1 \leq i < \infty} \frac{1}{n^2 + an + b} where a and b are numbers. The routine will return true, even if there are infinities in the term sequence (at most two). An analogous product would be: .. math:: \prod_{1 \leq i < \infty} e^{\frac{1}{n^2 + an + b}} This is how convergence is interpreted. It is concerned with what happens at the limit. Finding the bad terms is another independent matter. Note: It is responsibility of user to see that the sum or product is well defined. There are various tests employed to check the convergence like divergence test, root test, integral test, alternating series test, comparison tests, Dirichlet tests. It returns true if Sum is convergent and false if divergent and NotImplementedError if it can not be checked. References ========== .. [1] Examples ======== >>> from sympy import factorial, S, Sum, Symbol, oo >>> n = Symbol('n', integer=True) >>> Sum(n/(n - 1), (n, 4, 7)).is_convergent() True >>> Sum(n/(2*n + 1), (n, 1, oo)).is_convergent() False >>> Sum(factorial(n)/5**n, (n, 1, oo)).is_convergent() False >>> Sum(1/n**(S(6)/5), (n, 1, oo)).is_convergent() True See Also ======== Sum.is_absolutely_convergent() Product.is_convergent() """ from sympy import Interval, Integral, Limit, log, symbols, Ge, Gt, simplify p, q, r = symbols('p q r', cls=Wild) sym = self.limits[0][0] lower_limit = self.limits[0][1] upper_limit = self.limits[0][2] sequence_term = self.function if len(sequence_term.free_symbols) > 1: raise NotImplementedError("convergence checking for more than one symbol " "containing series is not handled") if lower_limit.is_finite and upper_limit.is_finite: return S.true # transform sym -> -sym and swap the upper_limit = S.Infinity # and lower_limit = - upper_limit if lower_limit is S.NegativeInfinity: if upper_limit is S.Infinity: return Sum(sequence_term, (sym, 0, S.Infinity)).is_convergent() and \ Sum(sequence_term, (sym, S.NegativeInfinity, 0)).is_convergent() sequence_term = simplify(sequence_term.xreplace({sym: -sym})) lower_limit = -upper_limit upper_limit = S.Infinity sym_ = Dummy(, integer=True, positive=True) sequence_term = sequence_term.xreplace({sym: sym_}) sym = sym_ interval = Interval(lower_limit, upper_limit) # Piecewise function handle if sequence_term.is_Piecewise: for func, cond in sequence_term.args: # see if it represents something going to oo if cond == True or cond.as_set().sup is S.Infinity: s = Sum(func, (sym, lower_limit, upper_limit)) return s.is_convergent() return S.true ### -------- Divergence test ----------- ### try: lim_val = limit(sequence_term, sym, upper_limit) if lim_val.is_number and lim_val is not S.Zero: return S.false except NotImplementedError: pass try: lim_val_abs = limit(abs(sequence_term), sym, upper_limit) if lim_val_abs.is_number and lim_val_abs is not S.Zero: return S.false except NotImplementedError: pass order = O(sequence_term, (sym, S.Infinity)) ### --------- p-series test (1/n**p) ---------- ### p1_series_test = order.expr.match(sym**p) if p1_series_test is not None: if p1_series_test[p] < -1: return S.true if p1_series_test[p] >= -1: return S.false p2_series_test = order.expr.match((1/sym)**p) if p2_series_test is not None: if p2_series_test[p] > 1: return S.true if p2_series_test[p] <= 1: return S.false ### ------------- comparison test ------------- ### # 1/(n**p*log(n)**q*log(log(n))**r) comparison n_log_test = order.expr.match(1/(sym**p*log(sym)**q*log(log(sym))**r)) if n_log_test is not None: if (n_log_test[p] > 1 or (n_log_test[p] == 1 and n_log_test[q] > 1) or (n_log_test[p] == n_log_test[q] == 1 and n_log_test[r] > 1)): return S.true return S.false ### ------------- Limit comparison test -----------### # (1/n) comparison try: lim_comp = limit(sym*sequence_term, sym, S.Infinity) if lim_comp.is_number and lim_comp > 0: return S.false except NotImplementedError: pass ### ----------- ratio test ---------------- ### next_sequence_term = sequence_term.xreplace({sym: sym + 1}) ratio = combsimp(powsimp(next_sequence_term/sequence_term)) try: lim_ratio = limit(ratio, sym, upper_limit) if lim_ratio.is_number: if abs(lim_ratio) > 1: return S.false if abs(lim_ratio) < 1: return S.true except NotImplementedError: pass ### ----------- root test ---------------- ### lim = Limit(abs(sequence_term)**(1/sym), sym, S.Infinity) try: lim_evaluated = lim.doit() if lim_evaluated.is_number: if lim_evaluated < 1: return S.true if lim_evaluated > 1: return S.false except NotImplementedError: pass ### ------------- alternating series test ----------- ### dict_val = sequence_term.match((-1)**(sym + p)*q) if not dict_val[p].has(sym) and is_decreasing(dict_val[q], interval): return S.true ### ------------- integral test -------------- ### check_interval = None maxima = solveset(sequence_term.diff(sym), sym, interval) if not maxima: check_interval = interval elif isinstance(maxima, FiniteSet) and maxima.sup.is_number: check_interval = Interval(maxima.sup, interval.sup) if (check_interval is not None and (is_decreasing(sequence_term, check_interval) or is_decreasing(-sequence_term, check_interval))): integral_val = Integral( sequence_term, (sym, lower_limit, upper_limit)) try: integral_val_evaluated = integral_val.doit() if integral_val_evaluated.is_number: return S(integral_val_evaluated.is_finite) except NotImplementedError: pass ### ----- Dirichlet and bounded times convergent tests ----- ### # TODO # # Dirichlet_test # # # Bounded times convergent test # It is based on comparison theorems for series. # In particular, if the general term of a series can # be written as a product of two terms a_n and b_n # and if a_n is bounded and if Sum(b_n) is absolutely # convergent, then the original series Sum(a_n * b_n) # is absolutely convergent and so convergent. # # The following code can grows like 2**n where n is the # number of args in order.expr # Possibly combined with the potentially slow checks # inside the loop, could make this test extremely slow # for larger summation expressions. if order.expr.is_Mul: args = order.expr.args argset = set(args) ### -------------- Dirichlet tests -------------- ### m = Dummy('m', integer=True) def _dirichlet_test(g_n): try: ing_val = limit(Sum(g_n, (sym, interval.inf, m)).doit(), m, S.Infinity) if ing_val.is_finite: return S.true except NotImplementedError: pass ### -------- bounded times convergent test ---------### def _bounded_convergent_test(g1_n, g2_n): try: lim_val = limit(g1_n, sym, upper_limit) if lim_val.is_finite or (isinstance(lim_val, AccumulationBounds) and (lim_val.max - lim_val.min).is_finite): if Sum(g2_n, (sym, lower_limit, upper_limit)).is_absolutely_convergent(): return S.true except NotImplementedError: pass for n in range(1, len(argset)): for a_tuple in itertools.combinations(args, n): b_set = argset - set(a_tuple) a_n = Mul(*a_tuple) b_n = Mul(*b_set) if is_decreasing(a_n, interval): dirich = _dirichlet_test(b_n) if dirich is not None: return dirich bc_test = _bounded_convergent_test(a_n, b_n) if bc_test is not None: return bc_test _sym = self.limits[0][0] sequence_term = sequence_term.xreplace({sym: _sym}) raise NotImplementedError("The algorithm to find the Sum convergence of %s " "is not yet implemented" % (sequence_term))
[docs] def is_absolutely_convergent(self): """ Checks for the absolute convergence of an infinite series. Same as checking convergence of absolute value of sequence_term of an infinite series. References ========== .. [1] Examples ======== >>> from sympy import Sum, Symbol, sin, oo >>> n = Symbol('n', integer=True) >>> Sum((-1)**n, (n, 1, oo)).is_absolutely_convergent() False >>> Sum((-1)**n/n**2, (n, 1, oo)).is_absolutely_convergent() True See Also ======== Sum.is_convergent() """ return Sum(abs(self.function), self.limits).is_convergent()
[docs] def euler_maclaurin(self, m=0, n=0, eps=0, eval_integral=True): """ Return an Euler-Maclaurin approximation of self, where m is the number of leading terms to sum directly and n is the number of terms in the tail. With m = n = 0, this is simply the corresponding integral plus a first-order endpoint correction. Returns (s, e) where s is the Euler-Maclaurin approximation and e is the estimated error (taken to be the magnitude of the first omitted term in the tail): >>> from import k, a, b >>> from sympy import Sum >>> Sum(1/k, (k, 2, 5)).doit().evalf() 1.28333333333333 >>> s, e = Sum(1/k, (k, 2, 5)).euler_maclaurin() >>> s -log(2) + 7/20 + log(5) >>> from sympy import sstr >>> print(sstr((s.evalf(), e.evalf()), full_prec=True)) (1.26629073187415, 0.0175000000000000) The endpoints may be symbolic: >>> s, e = Sum(1/k, (k, a, b)).euler_maclaurin() >>> s -log(a) + log(b) + 1/(2*b) + 1/(2*a) >>> e Abs(1/(12*b**2) - 1/(12*a**2)) If the function is a polynomial of degree at most 2n+1, the Euler-Maclaurin formula becomes exact (and e = 0 is returned): >>> Sum(k, (k, 2, b)).euler_maclaurin() (b**2/2 + b/2 - 1, 0) >>> Sum(k, (k, 2, b)).doit() b**2/2 + b/2 - 1 With a nonzero eps specified, the summation is ended as soon as the remainder term is less than the epsilon. """ from sympy.functions import bernoulli, factorial from sympy.integrals import Integral m = int(m) n = int(n) f = self.function if len(self.limits) != 1: raise ValueError("More than 1 limit") i, a, b = self.limits[0] if (a > b) == True: if a - b == 1: return S.Zero, S.Zero a, b = b + 1, a - 1 f = -f s = S.Zero if m: if b.is_Integer and a.is_Integer: m = min(m, b - a + 1) if not eps or f.is_polynomial(i): for k in range(m): s += f.subs(i, a + k) else: term = f.subs(i, a) if term: test = abs(term.evalf(3)) < eps if test == True: return s, abs(term) elif not (test == False): # a symbolic Relational class, can't go further return term, S.Zero s += term for k in range(1, m): term = f.subs(i, a + k) if abs(term.evalf(3)) < eps and term != 0: return s, abs(term) s += term if b - a + 1 == m: return s, S.Zero a += m x = Dummy('x') I = Integral(f.subs(i, x), (x, a, b)) if eval_integral: I = I.doit() s += I def fpoint(expr): if b is S.Infinity: return expr.subs(i, a), 0 return expr.subs(i, a), expr.subs(i, b) fa, fb = fpoint(f) iterm = (fa + fb)/2 g = f.diff(i) for k in range(1, n + 2): ga, gb = fpoint(g) term = bernoulli(2*k)/factorial(2*k)*(gb - ga) if (eps and term and abs(term.evalf(3)) < eps) or (k > n): break s += term g = g.diff(i, 2, simplify=False) return s + iterm, abs(term)
[docs] def reverse_order(self, *indices): """ Reverse the order of a limit in a Sum. Usage ===== ``reverse_order(self, *indices)`` reverses some limits in the expression ``self`` which can be either a ``Sum`` or a ``Product``. The selectors in the argument ``indices`` specify some indices whose limits get reversed. These selectors are either variable names or numerical indices counted starting from the inner-most limit tuple. Examples ======== >>> from sympy import Sum >>> from import x, y, a, b, c, d >>> Sum(x, (x, 0, 3)).reverse_order(x) Sum(-x, (x, 4, -1)) >>> Sum(x*y, (x, 1, 5), (y, 0, 6)).reverse_order(x, y) Sum(x*y, (x, 6, 0), (y, 7, -1)) >>> Sum(x, (x, a, b)).reverse_order(x) Sum(-x, (x, b + 1, a - 1)) >>> Sum(x, (x, a, b)).reverse_order(0) Sum(-x, (x, b + 1, a - 1)) While one should prefer variable names when specifying which limits to reverse, the index counting notation comes in handy in case there are several symbols with the same name. >>> S = Sum(x**2, (x, a, b), (x, c, d)) >>> S Sum(x**2, (x, a, b), (x, c, d)) >>> S0 = S.reverse_order(0) >>> S0 Sum(-x**2, (x, b + 1, a - 1), (x, c, d)) >>> S1 = S0.reverse_order(1) >>> S1 Sum(x**2, (x, b + 1, a - 1), (x, d + 1, c - 1)) Of course we can mix both notations: >>> Sum(x*y, (x, a, b), (y, 2, 5)).reverse_order(x, 1) Sum(x*y, (x, b + 1, a - 1), (y, 6, 1)) >>> Sum(x*y, (x, a, b), (y, 2, 5)).reverse_order(y, x) Sum(x*y, (x, b + 1, a - 1), (y, 6, 1)) See Also ======== index, reorder_limit, reorder References ========== .. [1] Michael Karr, "Summation in Finite Terms", Journal of the ACM, Volume 28 Issue 2, April 1981, Pages 305-350 """ l_indices = list(indices) for i, indx in enumerate(l_indices): if not isinstance(indx, int): l_indices[i] = self.index(indx) e = 1 limits = [] for i, limit in enumerate(self.limits): l = limit if i in l_indices: e = -e l = (limit[0], limit[2] + 1, limit[1] - 1) limits.append(l) return Sum(e * self.function, *limits)
[docs]def summation(f, *symbols, **kwargs): r""" Compute the summation of f with respect to symbols. The notation for symbols is similar to the notation used in Integral. summation(f, (i, a, b)) computes the sum of f with respect to i from a to b, i.e., :: b ____ \ ` summation(f, (i, a, b)) = ) f /___, i = a If it cannot compute the sum, it returns an unevaluated Sum object. Repeated sums can be computed by introducing additional symbols tuples:: >>> from sympy import summation, oo, symbols, log >>> i, n, m = symbols('i n m', integer=True) >>> summation(2*i - 1, (i, 1, n)) n**2 >>> summation(1/2**i, (i, 0, oo)) 2 >>> summation(1/log(n)**n, (n, 2, oo)) Sum(log(n)**(-n), (n, 2, oo)) >>> summation(i, (i, 0, n), (n, 0, m)) m**3/6 + m**2/2 + m/3 >>> from import x >>> from sympy import factorial >>> summation(x**n/factorial(n), (n, 0, oo)) exp(x) See Also ======== Sum Product, product """ return Sum(f, *symbols, **kwargs).doit(deep=False)
def telescopic_direct(L, R, n, limits): """Returns the direct summation of the terms of a telescopic sum L is the term with lower index R is the term with higher index n difference between the indexes of L and R For example: >>> from sympy.concrete.summations import telescopic_direct >>> from import k, a, b >>> telescopic_direct(1/k, -1/(k+2), 2, (k, a, b)) -1/(b + 2) - 1/(b + 1) + 1/(a + 1) + 1/a """ (i, a, b) = limits s = 0 for m in range(n): s += L.subs(i, a + m) + R.subs(i, b - m) return s def telescopic(L, R, limits): '''Tries to perform the summation using the telescopic property return None if not possible ''' (i, a, b) = limits if L.is_Add or R.is_Add: return None # We want to solve(L.subs(i, i + m) + R, m) # First we try a simple match since this does things that # solve doesn't do, e.g. solve(f(k+m)-f(k), m) fails k = Wild("k") sol = (-R).match(L.subs(i, i + k)) s = None if sol and k in sol: s = sol[k] if not (s.is_Integer and L.subs(i, i + s) == -R): # sometimes match fail(f(x+2).match(-f(x+k))->{k: -2 - 2x})) s = None # But there are things that match doesn't do that solve # can do, e.g. determine that 1/(x + m) = 1/(1 - x) when m = 1 if s is None: m = Dummy('m') try: sol = solve(L.subs(i, i + m) + R, m) or [] except NotImplementedError: return None sol = [si for si in sol if si.is_Integer and (L.subs(i, i + si) + R).expand().is_zero] if len(sol) != 1: return None s = sol[0] if s < 0: return telescopic_direct(R, L, abs(s), (i, a, b)) elif s > 0: return telescopic_direct(L, R, s, (i, a, b)) def eval_sum(f, limits): from import deltasummation, _has_simple_delta from sympy.functions import KroneckerDelta (i, a, b) = limits if f is S.Zero: return S.Zero if i not in f.free_symbols: return f*(b - a + 1) if a == b: return f.subs(i, a) if isinstance(f, Piecewise): if not any(i in arg.args[1].free_symbols for arg in f.args): # Piecewise conditions do not depend on the dummy summation variable, # therefore we can fold: Sum(Piecewise((e, c), ...), limits) # --> Piecewise((Sum(e, limits), c), ...) newargs = [] for arg in f.args: newexpr = eval_sum(arg.expr, limits) if newexpr is None: return None newargs.append((newexpr, arg.cond)) return f.func(*newargs) if f.has(KroneckerDelta) and _has_simple_delta(f, limits[0]): return deltasummation(f, limits) dif = b - a definite = dif.is_Integer # Doing it directly may be faster if there are very few terms. if definite and (dif < 100): return eval_sum_direct(f, (i, a, b)) if isinstance(f, Piecewise): return None # Try to do it symbolically. Even when the number of terms is known, # this can save time when b-a is big. # We should try to transform to partial fractions value = eval_sum_symbolic(f.expand(), (i, a, b)) if value is not None: return value # Do it directly if definite: return eval_sum_direct(f, (i, a, b)) def eval_sum_direct(expr, limits): from sympy.core import Add (i, a, b) = limits dif = b - a return Add(*[expr.subs(i, a + j) for j in range(dif + 1)]) def eval_sum_symbolic(f, limits): from sympy.functions import harmonic, bernoulli f_orig = f (i, a, b) = limits if not f.has(i): return f*(b - a + 1) # Linearity if f.is_Mul: L, R = f.as_two_terms() if not L.has(i): sR = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b)) if sR: return L*sR if not R.has(i): sL = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b)) if sL: return R*sL try: f = apart(f, i) # see if it becomes an Add except PolynomialError: pass if f.is_Add: L, R = f.as_two_terms() lrsum = telescopic(L, R, (i, a, b)) if lrsum: return lrsum lsum = eval_sum_symbolic(L, (i, a, b)) rsum = eval_sum_symbolic(R, (i, a, b)) if None not in (lsum, rsum): r = lsum + rsum if not r is S.NaN: return r # Polynomial terms with Faulhaber's formula n = Wild('n') result = f.match(i**n) if result is not None: n = result[n] if n.is_Integer: if n >= 0: if (b is S.Infinity and not a is S.NegativeInfinity) or \ (a is S.NegativeInfinity and not b is S.Infinity): return S.Infinity return ((bernoulli(n + 1, b + 1) - bernoulli(n + 1, a))/(n + 1)).expand() elif a.is_Integer and a >= 1: if n == -1: return harmonic(b) - harmonic(a - 1) else: return harmonic(b, abs(n)) - harmonic(a - 1, abs(n)) if not (a.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity) or b.has(S.Infinity, S.NegativeInfinity)): # Geometric terms c1 = Wild('c1', exclude=[i]) c2 = Wild('c2', exclude=[i]) c3 = Wild('c3', exclude=[i]) wexp = Wild('wexp') # Here we first attempt powsimp on f for easier matching with the # exponential pattern, and attempt expansion on the exponent for easier # matching with the linear pattern. e = f.powsimp().match(c1 ** wexp) if e is not None: e_exp = e.pop(wexp).expand().match(c2*i + c3) if e_exp is not None: e.update(e_exp) if e is not None: p = (c1**c3).subs(e) q = (c1**c2).subs(e) r = p*(q**a - q**(b + 1))/(1 - q) l = p*(b - a + 1) return Piecewise((l, Eq(q, S.One)), (r, True)) r = gosper_sum(f, (i, a, b)) if not r in (None, S.NaN): return r return eval_sum_hyper(f_orig, (i, a, b)) def _eval_sum_hyper(f, i, a): """ Returns (res, cond). Sums from a to oo. """ from sympy.functions import hyper from sympy.simplify import hyperexpand, hypersimp, fraction, simplify from sympy.polys.polytools import Poly, factor from sympy.core.numbers import Float if a != 0: return _eval_sum_hyper(f.subs(i, i + a), i, 0) if f.subs(i, 0) == 0: if simplify(f.subs(i, Dummy('i', integer=True, positive=True))) == 0: return S(0), True return _eval_sum_hyper(f.subs(i, i + 1), i, 0) hs = hypersimp(f, i) if hs is None: return None if isinstance(hs, Float): from sympy.simplify.simplify import nsimplify hs = nsimplify(hs) numer, denom = fraction(factor(hs)) top, topl = numer.as_coeff_mul(i) bot, botl = denom.as_coeff_mul(i) ab = [top, bot] factors = [topl, botl] params = [[], []] for k in range(2): for fac in factors[k]: mul = 1 if fac.is_Pow: mul = fac.exp fac = fac.base if not mul.is_Integer: return None p = Poly(fac, i) if != 1: return None m, n = p.all_coeffs() ab[k] *= m**mul params[k] += [n/m]*mul # Add "1" to numerator parameters, to account for implicit n! in # hypergeometric series. ap = params[0] + [1] bq = params[1] x = ab[0]/ab[1] h = hyper(ap, bq, x) return f.subs(i, 0)*hyperexpand(h), h.convergence_statement def eval_sum_hyper(f, i_a_b): from sympy.logic.boolalg import And i, a, b = i_a_b if (b - a).is_Integer: # We are never going to do better than doing the sum in the obvious way return None old_sum = Sum(f, (i, a, b)) if b != S.Infinity: if a == S.NegativeInfinity: res = _eval_sum_hyper(f.subs(i, -i), i, -b) if res is not None: return Piecewise(res, (old_sum, True)) else: res1 = _eval_sum_hyper(f, i, a) res2 = _eval_sum_hyper(f, i, b + 1) if res1 is None or res2 is None: return None (res1, cond1), (res2, cond2) = res1, res2 cond = And(cond1, cond2) if cond == False: return None return Piecewise((res1 - res2, cond), (old_sum, True)) if a == S.NegativeInfinity: res1 = _eval_sum_hyper(f.subs(i, -i), i, 1) res2 = _eval_sum_hyper(f, i, 0) if res1 is None or res2 is None: return None res1, cond1 = res1 res2, cond2 = res2 cond = And(cond1, cond2) if cond == False: return None return Piecewise((res1 + res2, cond), (old_sum, True)) # Now b == oo, a != -oo res = _eval_sum_hyper(f, i, a) if res is not None: r, c = res if c == False: if r.is_number: f = f.subs(i, Dummy('i', integer=True, positive=True) + a) if f.is_positive or f.is_zero: return S.Infinity elif f.is_negative: return S.NegativeInfinity return None return Piecewise(res, (old_sum, True))