"""
This module contains query handlers responsible for calculus queries:
infinitesimal, bounded, etc.
"""
from sympy.logic.boolalg import conjuncts
from sympy.assumptions import Q, ask
from sympy.assumptions.handlers import CommonHandler
[docs]class AskInfinitesimalHandler(CommonHandler):
"""
Handler for key 'infinitesimal'
Test that a given expression is equivalent to an infinitesimal
number
"""
@staticmethod
def _number(expr, assumptions):
# helper method
return expr.evalf() == 0
@staticmethod
def Basic(expr, assumptions):
if expr.is_number:
return AskInfinitesimalHandler._number(expr, assumptions)
@staticmethod
[docs] def Mul(expr, assumptions):
"""
Infinitesimal*Bounded > Infinitesimal
"""
if expr.is_number:
return AskInfinitesimalHandler._number(expr, assumptions)
result = False
for arg in expr.args:
if ask(Q.infinitesimal(arg), assumptions):
result = True
elif ask(Q.bounded(arg), assumptions):
continue
else:
break
else:
return result
Add, Pow = [Mul]*2
@staticmethod
def Number(expr, assumptions):
return expr == 0
NumberSymbol = Number
ImaginaryUnit = staticmethod(CommonHandler.AlwaysFalse)
[docs]class AskBoundedHandler(CommonHandler):
"""
Handler for key 'bounded'.
Test that an expression is bounded respect to all its variables.
Examples of usage:
>>> from sympy import Symbol, Q
>>> from sympy.assumptions.handlers.calculus import AskBoundedHandler
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> a = AskBoundedHandler()
>>> a.Symbol(x, Q.positive(x)) == None
True
>>> a.Symbol(x, Q.bounded(x))
True
"""
@staticmethod
[docs] def Symbol(expr, assumptions):
"""
Handles Symbol.
Examples:
>>> from sympy import Symbol, Q
>>> from sympy.assumptions.handlers.calculus import AskBoundedHandler
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> a = AskBoundedHandler()
>>> a.Symbol(x, Q.positive(x)) == None
True
>>> a.Symbol(x, Q.bounded(x))
True
"""
if Q.bounded(expr) in conjuncts(assumptions):
return True
return None
@staticmethod
[docs] def Add(expr, assumptions):
"""
Return True if expr is bounded, False if not and None if unknown.
Truth Table:
+++++
    
  B  U  ? 
    
+++++++++
        
  '+''''x''+''''x'
        
+++++++++
    
 B  B  U  ? 
    
++++++++++
         
 '+'  U  ?  ?  U  ?  ? 
         
 +++++++++
         
 U ''  ?  U  ?  ?  U  ? 
         
 +++++++++
     
 'x'  ?  ? 
     
++++++++++
    
 ?    ? 
    
+++++++
* 'B' = Bounded
* 'U' = Unbounded
* '?' = unknown boundedness
* '+' = positive sign
* '' = negative sign
* 'x' = sign unknown

* All Bounded > True
* 1 Unbounded and the rest Bounded > False
* >1 Unbounded, all with same known sign > False
* Any Unknown and unknown sign > None
* Else > None
When the signs are not the same you can have an undefined
result as in oo  oo, hence 'bounded' is also undefined.
"""
sign = 1 # sign of unknown or unbounded
result = True
for arg in expr.args:
_bounded = ask(Q.bounded(arg), assumptions)
if _bounded:
continue
s = ask(Q.positive(arg), assumptions)
# if there has been more than one sign or if the sign of this arg
# is None and Bounded is None or there was already
# an unknown sign, return None
if sign != 1 and s != sign or \
s is None and (s == _bounded or s == sign):
return None
else:
sign = s
# once False, do not change
if result is not False:
result = _bounded
return result
@staticmethod
[docs] def Mul(expr, assumptions):
"""
Return True if expr is bounded, False if not and None if unknown.
Truth Table:
+++++
    
  B  U  ? 
    
++++++
     
    s  /s 
     
++++++
    
 B  B  U  ? 
    
++++++
     
 U   U  U  ? 
     
++++++
    
 ?    ? 
    
++++++
* B = Bounded
* U = Unbounded
* ? = unknown boundedness
* s = signed (hence nonzero)
* /s = not signed
"""
result = True
for arg in expr.args:
_bounded = ask(Q.bounded(arg), assumptions)
if _bounded:
continue
elif _bounded is None:
if result is None:
return None
if ask(Q.nonzero(arg), assumptions) is None:
return None
if result is not False:
result = None
else:
result = False
return result
@staticmethod
[docs] def Pow(expr, assumptions):
"""
Unbounded ** NonZero > Unbounded
Bounded ** Bounded > Bounded
Abs()<=1 ** Positive > Bounded
Abs()>=1 ** Negative > Bounded
Otherwise unknown
"""
base_bounded = ask(Q.bounded(expr.base), assumptions)
exp_bounded = ask(Q.bounded(expr.exp), assumptions)
if base_bounded is None and exp_bounded is None: # Common Case
return None
if base_bounded is False and ask(Q.nonzero(expr.exp), assumptions):
return False
if base_bounded and exp_bounded:
return True
if abs(expr.base) <= 1 and ask(Q.positive(expr.exp), assumptions):
return True
if abs(expr.base) >= 1 and ask(Q.negative(expr.exp), assumptions):
return True
if abs(expr.base) >= 1 and exp_bounded is False:
return False
return None
@staticmethod
def log(expr, assumptions):
return ask(Q.bounded(expr.args[0]), assumptions)
exp = log
cos, sin, Number, Pi, Exp1, GoldenRatio, ImaginaryUnit, sign = \
[staticmethod(CommonHandler.AlwaysTrue)]*8
Infinity, NegativeInfinity = [staticmethod(CommonHandler.AlwaysFalse)]*2