/

# Source code for sympy.logic.inference

"""Inference in propositional logic"""
from __future__ import print_function, division

from sympy.logic.boolalg import And, Or, Not, Implies, Equivalent, \
conjuncts, to_cnf
from sympy.core.basic import C
from sympy.core.sympify import sympify

def is_literal(expr):
"""
Returns True if expr is a literal, else False.

Examples
========

>>> from sympy import Symbol, Or
>>> from sympy.abc import A, B
>>> from sympy.logic.inference import is_literal
>>> is_literal(A)
True
>>> is_literal(~A)
True
>>> is_literal(Or(A, B))
False

"""

try:
literal_symbol(expr)
return True
except (ValueError):
return False

def literal_symbol(literal):
"""
The symbol in this literal (without the negation).

Examples
========

>>> from sympy import Symbol
>>> from sympy.abc import A
>>> from sympy.logic.inference import literal_symbol
>>> literal_symbol(A)
A
>>> literal_symbol(~A)
A

"""

if literal is True or literal is False:
return literal
try:
if literal.is_Symbol:
return literal
if literal.is_Not:
return literal_symbol(literal.args[0])
else:
raise ValueError
except (AttributeError, ValueError):
raise ValueError("Argument must be a boolean literal.")

[docs]def satisfiable(expr, algorithm="dpll2"): """ Check satisfiability of a propositional sentence. Returns a model when it succeeds Examples: >>> from sympy.abc import A, B >>> from sympy.logic.inference import satisfiable >>> satisfiable(A & ~B) {A: True, B: False} >>> satisfiable(A & ~A) False """ if expr is True: return {} if expr is False: return False expr = to_cnf(expr) if algorithm == "dpll": from sympy.logic.algorithms.dpll import dpll_satisfiable return dpll_satisfiable(expr) elif algorithm == "dpll2": from sympy.logic.algorithms.dpll2 import dpll_satisfiable return dpll_satisfiable(expr) raise NotImplementedError
def pl_true(expr, model={}): """ Return True if the propositional logic expression is true in the model, and False if it is false. If the model does not specify the value for every proposition, this may return None to indicate 'not obvious'; this may happen even when the expression is tautological. The model is implemented as a dict containing the pair symbol, boolean value. Examples ======== >>> from sympy.abc import A, B >>> from sympy.logic.inference import pl_true >>> pl_true( A & B, {A: True, B : True}) True """ if isinstance(expr, bool): return expr expr = sympify(expr) if expr.is_Symbol: return model.get(expr) args = expr.args func = expr.func if func is Not: p = pl_true(args[0], model) if p is None: return None else: return not p elif func is Or: result = False for arg in args: p = pl_true(arg, model) if p is True: return True if p is None: result = None return result elif func is And: result = True for arg in args: p = pl_true(arg, model) if p is False: return False if p is None: result = None return result elif func is Implies: p, q = args return pl_true(Or(Not(p), q), model) elif func is Equivalent: p, q = args pt = pl_true(p, model) if pt is None: return None qt = pl_true(q, model) if qt is None: return None return pt == qt else: raise ValueError("Illegal operator in logic expression" + str(expr)) class KB(object): """Base class for all knowledge bases""" def __init__(self, sentence=None): self.clauses = [] if sentence: self.tell(sentence) def tell(self, sentence): raise NotImplementedError def ask(self, query): raise NotImplementedError def retract(self, sentence): raise NotImplementedError class PropKB(KB): """A KB for Propositional Logic. Inefficient, with no indexing.""" def tell(self, sentence): """Add the sentence's clauses to the KB Examples ======== >>> from sympy.logic.inference import PropKB >>> from sympy.abc import x, y >>> l = PropKB() >>> l.clauses [] >>> l.tell(x | y) >>> l.clauses [Or(x, y)] >>> l.tell(y) >>> l.clauses [Or(x, y), y] """ for c in conjuncts(to_cnf(sentence)): if not c in self.clauses: self.clauses.append(c) def ask(self, query): """Checks if the query is true given the set of clauses. Examples ======== >>> from sympy.logic.inference import PropKB >>> from sympy.abc import x, y >>> l = PropKB() >>> l.tell(x & ~y) >>> l.ask(x) True >>> l.ask(y) False """ if len(self.clauses) == 0: return False from sympy.logic.algorithms.dpll import dpll query_conjuncts = self.clauses[:] query_conjuncts.extend(conjuncts(to_cnf(query))) s = set() for q in query_conjuncts: s = s.union(q.atoms(C.Symbol)) return bool(dpll(query_conjuncts, list(s), {})) def retract(self, sentence): """Remove the sentence's clauses from the KB Examples ======== >>> from sympy.logic.inference import PropKB >>> from sympy.abc import x, y >>> l = PropKB() >>> l.clauses [] >>> l.tell(x | y) >>> l.clauses [Or(x, y)] >>> l.retract(x | y) >>> l.clauses [] """ for c in conjuncts(to_cnf(sentence)): if c in self.clauses: self.clauses.remove(c)