Source code for sympy.plotting.plot_implicit

"""Implicit plotting module for SymPy

The module implements a data series called ImplicitSeries which is used by
``Plot`` class to plot implicit plots for different backends. The module,
by default, implements plotting using interval arithmetic. It switches to a
fall back algorithm if the expression cannot be plotted used interval
interval arithmetic. It is also possible to specify to use the fall back
algorithm for all plots.

Boolean combinations of expressions cannot be plotted by the fall back

See Also

- Jeffrey Allen Tupper. Reliable Two-Dimensional Graphing Methods for
Mathematical Formulae with Two Free Variables.

- Jeffrey Allen Tupper. Graphing Equations with Generalized Interval
Arithmetic. Master's thesis. University of Toronto, 1996


from __future__ import print_function, division

from .plot import BaseSeries, Plot
from .experimental_lambdify import experimental_lambdify, vectorized_lambdify
from .intervalmath import interval
from sympy.core.relational import (Equality, GreaterThan, LessThan,
                Relational, StrictLessThan, StrictGreaterThan)
from sympy import Eq, Tuple, sympify, Dummy
from sympy.external import import_module
from sympy.logic.boolalg import BooleanFunction
from sympy.utilities.decorator import doctest_depends_on
import warnings

[docs]class ImplicitSeries(BaseSeries): """ Representation for Implicit plot """ is_implicit = True def __init__(self, expr, var_start_end_x, var_start_end_y, has_equality, use_interval_math, depth, nb_of_points): super(ImplicitSeries, self).__init__() self.expr = sympify(expr) self.var_x = sympify(var_start_end_x[0]) self.start_x = float(var_start_end_x[1]) self.end_x = float(var_start_end_x[2]) self.var_y = sympify(var_start_end_y[0]) self.start_y = float(var_start_end_y[1]) self.end_y = float(var_start_end_y[2]) self.get_points = self.get_raster self.has_equality = has_equality # If the expression has equality, i.e. #Eq, Greaterthan, LessThan. self.nb_of_points = nb_of_points self.use_interval_math = use_interval_math self.depth = 4 + depth def __str__(self): return ('Implicit equation: %s for ' '%s over %s and %s over %s') % ( str(self.expr), str(self.var_x), str((self.start_x, self.end_x)), str(self.var_y), str((self.start_y, self.end_y))) def get_raster(self): func = experimental_lambdify((self.var_x, self.var_y), self.expr, use_interval=True) xinterval = interval(self.start_x, self.end_x) yinterval = interval(self.start_y, self.end_y) try: temp = func(xinterval, yinterval) except AttributeError: if self.use_interval_math: warnings.warn("Adaptive meshing could not be applied to the" " expression. Using uniform meshing.") self.use_interval_math = False if self.use_interval_math: return self._get_raster_interval(func) else: return self._get_meshes_grid() def _get_raster_interval(self, func): """ Uses interval math to adaptively mesh and obtain the plot""" k = self.depth interval_list = [] #Create initial 32 divisions np = import_module('numpy') xsample = np.linspace(self.start_x, self.end_x, 33) ysample = np.linspace(self.start_y, self.end_y, 33) #Add a small jitter so that there are no false positives for equality. # Ex: y==x becomes True for x interval(1, 2) and y interval(1, 2) #which will draw a rectangle. jitterx = (np.random.rand( len(xsample)) * 2 - 1) * (self.end_x - self.start_x) / 2**20 jittery = (np.random.rand( len(ysample)) * 2 - 1) * (self.end_y - self.start_y) / 2**20 xsample += jitterx ysample += jittery xinter = [interval(x1, x2) for x1, x2 in zip(xsample[:-1], xsample[1:])] yinter = [interval(y1, y2) for y1, y2 in zip(ysample[:-1], ysample[1:])] interval_list = [[x, y] for x in xinter for y in yinter] plot_list = [] #recursive call refinepixels which subdivides the intervals which are #neither True nor False according to the expression. def refine_pixels(interval_list): """ Evaluates the intervals and subdivides the interval if the expression is partially satisfied.""" temp_interval_list = [] plot_list = [] for intervals in interval_list: #Convert the array indices to x and y values intervalx = intervals[0] intervaly = intervals[1] func_eval = func(intervalx, intervaly) #The expression is valid in the interval. Change the contour #array values to 1. if func_eval[1] is False or func_eval[0] is False: pass elif func_eval == (True, True): plot_list.append([intervalx, intervaly]) elif func_eval[1] is None or func_eval[0] is None: #Subdivide avgx = intervalx.mid avgy = intervaly.mid a = interval(intervalx.start, avgx) b = interval(avgx, intervalx.end) c = interval(intervaly.start, avgy) d = interval(avgy, intervaly.end) temp_interval_list.append([a, c]) temp_interval_list.append([a, d]) temp_interval_list.append([b, c]) temp_interval_list.append([b, d]) return temp_interval_list, plot_list while k >= 0 and len(interval_list): interval_list, plot_list_temp = refine_pixels(interval_list) plot_list.extend(plot_list_temp) k = k - 1 #Check whether the expression represents an equality #If it represents an equality, then none of the intervals #would have satisfied the expression due to floating point #differences. Add all the undecided values to the plot. if self.has_equality: for intervals in interval_list: intervalx = intervals[0] intervaly = intervals[1] func_eval = func(intervalx, intervaly) if func_eval[1] and func_eval[0] is not False: plot_list.append([intervalx, intervaly]) return plot_list, 'fill' def _get_meshes_grid(self): """Generates the mesh for generating a contour. In the case of equality, ``contour`` function of matplotlib can be used. In other cases, matplotlib's ``contourf`` is used. """ equal = False if isinstance(self.expr, Equality): expr = self.expr.lhs - self.expr.rhs equal = True elif isinstance(self.expr, (GreaterThan, StrictGreaterThan)): expr = self.expr.lhs - self.expr.rhs elif isinstance(self.expr, (LessThan, StrictLessThan)): expr = self.expr.rhs - self.expr.lhs else: raise NotImplementedError("The expression is not supported for " "plotting in uniform meshed plot.") np = import_module('numpy') xarray = np.linspace(self.start_x, self.end_x, self.nb_of_points) yarray = np.linspace(self.start_y, self.end_y, self.nb_of_points) x_grid, y_grid = np.meshgrid(xarray, yarray) func = vectorized_lambdify((self.var_x, self.var_y), expr) z_grid = func(x_grid, y_grid) z_grid[np.ma.where(z_grid < 0)] = -1 z_grid[np.ma.where(z_grid > 0)] = 1 if equal: return xarray, yarray, z_grid, 'contour' else: return xarray, yarray, z_grid, 'contourf'
[docs]def plot_implicit(expr, *args, **kwargs): """A plot function to plot implicit equations / inequalities. Arguments ========= - ``expr`` : The equation / inequality that is to be plotted. - ``(x, xmin, xmax)`` optional, 3-tuple denoting the range of symbol ``x`` - ``(y, ymin, ymax)`` optional, 3-tuple denoting the range of symbol ``y`` The following arguments can be passed as named parameters. - ``adaptive``. Boolean. The default value is set to True. It has to be set to False if you want to use a mesh grid. - ``depth`` integer. The depth of recursion for adaptive mesh grid. Default value is 0. Takes value in the range (0, 4). - ``points`` integer. The number of points if adaptive mesh grid is not used. Default value is 200. - ``title`` string .The title for the plot. - ``xlabel`` string. The label for the x - axis - ``ylabel`` string. The label for the y - axis plot_implicit, by default, uses interval arithmetic to plot functions. If the expression cannot be plotted using interval arithmetic, it defaults to a generating a contour using a mesh grid of fixed number of points. By setting adaptive to False, you can force plot_implicit to use the mesh grid. The mesh grid method can be effective when adaptive plotting using interval arithmetic, fails to plot with small line width. Examples: ========= Plot expressions: >>> from sympy import plot_implicit, cos, sin, symbols, Eq, And >>> x, y = symbols('x y') Without any ranges for the symbols in the expression >>> p1 = plot_implicit(Eq(x**2 + y**2, 5)) With the range for the symbols >>> p2 = plot_implicit(Eq(x**2 + y**2, 3), ... (x, -3, 3), (y, -3, 3)) With depth of recursion as argument. >>> p3 = plot_implicit(Eq(x**2 + y**2, 5), ... (x, -4, 4), (y, -4, 4), depth = 2) Using mesh grid and not using adaptive meshing. >>> p4 = plot_implicit(Eq(x**2 + y**2, 5), ... (x, -5, 5), (y, -2, 2), adaptive=False) Using mesh grid with number of points as input. >>> p5 = plot_implicit(Eq(x**2 + y**2, 5), ... (x, -5, 5), (y, -2, 2), ... adaptive=False, points=400) Plotting regions. >>> p6 = plot_implicit(y > x**2) Plotting Using boolean conjunctions. >>> p7 = plot_implicit(And(y > x, y > -x)) """ has_equality = False # Represents whether the expression contains an Equality, #GreaterThan or LessThan def arg_expand(bool_expr): """ Recursively expands the arguments of an Boolean Function """ for arg in bool_expr.args: if isinstance(arg, BooleanFunction): arg_expand(arg) elif isinstance(arg, Relational): arg_list.append(arg) arg_list = [] if isinstance(expr, BooleanFunction): arg_expand(expr) #Check whether there is an equality in the expression provided. if any(isinstance(e, (Equality, GreaterThan, LessThan)) for e in arg_list): has_equality = True elif not isinstance(expr, Relational): expr = Eq(expr, 0) has_equality = True elif isinstance(expr, (Equality, GreaterThan, LessThan)): has_equality = True free_symbols = set(expr.free_symbols) range_symbols = set([t[0] for t in args]) symbols = set.union(free_symbols, range_symbols) if len(symbols) > 2: raise NotImplementedError("Implicit plotting is not implemented for " "more than 2 variables") #Create default ranges if the range is not provided. default_range = Tuple(-5, 5) if len(args) == 2: var_start_end_x = args[0] var_start_end_y = args[1] elif len(args) == 1: if len(free_symbols) == 2: var_start_end_x = args[0] var_start_end_y, = (Tuple(e) + default_range for e in (free_symbols - range_symbols)) else: var_start_end_x, = (Tuple(e) + default_range for e in free_symbols) #Create a random symbol var_start_end_y = Tuple(Dummy()) + default_range elif len(args) == 0: if len(free_symbols) == 1: var_start_end_x, = (Tuple(e) + default_range for e in free_symbols) #create a random symbol var_start_end_y = Tuple(Dummy()) + default_range else: var_start_end_x, var_start_end_y = (Tuple(e) + default_range for e in free_symbols) use_interval = kwargs.pop('adaptive', True) nb_of_points = kwargs.pop('points', 300) depth = kwargs.pop('depth', 0) #Check whether the depth is greater than 4 or less than 0. if depth > 4: depth = 4 elif depth < 0: depth = 0 series_argument = ImplicitSeries(expr, var_start_end_x, var_start_end_y, has_equality, use_interval, depth, nb_of_points) show = kwargs.pop('show', True) #set the x and y limits kwargs['xlim'] = tuple(float(x) for x in var_start_end_x[1:]) kwargs['ylim'] = tuple(float(y) for y in var_start_end_y[1:]) p = Plot(series_argument, **kwargs) if show: p.show() return p