/

# Source code for sympy.liealgebras.type_a

from __future__ import print_function, division

from sympy.core.compatibility import range
from sympy.liealgebras.cartan_type import Standard_Cartan
from sympy.matrices import eye

[docs]class TypeA(Standard_Cartan):
"""
This class contains the information about
the A series of simple Lie algebras.
====
"""

def __new__(cls, n):
if n < 1:
raise ValueError("n can not be less than 1")
return Standard_Cartan.__new__(cls, "A", n)

[docs]    def dimension(self):
"""Dimension of the vector space V underlying the Lie algebra

Examples
========

>>> from sympy.liealgebras.cartan_type import CartanType
>>> c = CartanType("A4")
>>> c.dimension()
5
"""
return self.n+1

[docs]    def basic_root(self, i, j):
"""
This is a method just to generate roots
with a 1 iin the ith position and a -1
in the jth postion.

"""

n = self.n
root = [0]*(n+1)
root[i] = 1
root[j] = -1
return root

[docs]    def simple_root(self, i):
"""
Every lie algebra has a unique root system.
Given a root system Q, there is a subset of the
roots such that an element of Q is called a
simple root if it cannot be written as the sum
of two elements in Q.  If we let D denote the
set of simple roots, then it is clear that every
element of Q can be written as a linear combination
of elements of D with all coefficients non-negative.

In A_n the ith simple root is the root which has a 1
in the ith position, a -1 in the (i+1)th position,
and zeroes elsewhere.

This method returns the ith simple root for the A series.

Examples
========

>>> from sympy.liealgebras.cartan_type import CartanType
>>> c = CartanType("A4")
>>> c.simple_root(1)
[1, -1, 0, 0, 0]

"""

return self.basic_root(i-1, i)

[docs]    def positive_roots(self):
"""
This method generates all the positive roots of
A_n.  This is half of all of the roots of A_n;
by multiplying all the positive roots by -1 we
get the negative roots.

Examples
========

>>> from sympy.liealgebras.cartan_type import CartanType
>>> c = CartanType("A3")
>>> c.positive_roots()
{1: [1, -1, 0, 0], 2: [1, 0, -1, 0], 3: [1, 0, 0, -1], 4: [0, 1, -1, 0],
5: [0, 1, 0, -1], 6: [0, 0, 1, -1]}
"""

n = self.n
posroots = {}
k = 0
for i in range(0, n):
for j in range(i+1, n+1):
k += 1
posroots[k] = self.basic_root(i, j)
return posroots

[docs]    def highest_root(self):
"""
Returns the heighest weight root for A_n
"""

return self.basic_root(0, self.n)

[docs]    def roots(self):
"""
Returns the total number of roots for A_n
"""
n = self.n
return n*(n+1)

[docs]    def cartan_matrix(self):
"""
Returns the Cartan matrix for A_n.
The Cartan matrix matrix for a Lie algebra is
generated by assigning an ordering to the simple
roots, (alpha[1], ...., alpha[l]).  Then the ijth
entry of the Cartan matrix is (<alpha[i],alpha[j]>).

Examples
========

>>> from sympy.liealgebras.cartan_type import CartanType
>>> c = CartanType('A4')
>>> c.cartan_matrix()
Matrix([
[ 2, -1,  0,  0],
[-1,  2, -1,  0],
[ 0, -1,  2, -1],
[ 0,  0, -1,  2]])

"""

n = self.n
m = 2 * eye(n)
i = 1
while i < n-1:
m[i, i+1] = -1
m[i, i-1] = -1
i += 1
m[0,1] = -1
m[n-1, n-2] = -1
return m

[docs]    def basis(self):
"""
Returns the number of independent generators of A_n
"""
n = self.n
return n**2 - 1

[docs]    def lie_algebra(self):
"""
Returns the Lie algebra associated with A_n
"""
n = self.n
return "su(" + str(n + 1) + ")"

def dynkin_diagram(self):
n = self.n
diag = "---".join("0" for i in range(1, n+1)) + "\n"
diag += "   ".join(str(i) for i in range(1, n+1))
return diag