# Source code for sympy.core.basic

```
"""Base class for all the objects in SymPy"""
from __future__ import print_function, division
from collections import defaultdict
from itertools import chain
from .assumptions import BasicMeta, ManagedProperties
from .cache import cacheit
from .sympify import _sympify, sympify, SympifyError
from .compatibility import (iterable, Iterator, ordered,
string_types, with_metaclass, zip_longest, range, PY3, Mapping)
from .singleton import S
from inspect import getmro
def as_Basic(expr):
"""Return expr as a Basic instance using strict sympify
or raise a TypeError; this is just a wrapper to _sympify,
raising a TypeError instead of a SympifyError."""
from sympy.utilities.misc import func_name
try:
return _sympify(expr)
except SympifyError:
raise TypeError(
'Argument must be a Basic object, not `%s`' % func_name(
expr))
[docs]class Basic(with_metaclass(ManagedProperties)):
"""
Base class for all objects in SymPy.
Conventions:
1) Always use ``.args``, when accessing parameters of some instance:
>>> from sympy import cot
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> cot(x).args
(x,)
>>> cot(x).args[0]
x
>>> (x*y).args
(x, y)
>>> (x*y).args[1]
y
2) Never use internal methods or variables (the ones prefixed with ``_``):
>>> cot(x)._args # do not use this, use cot(x).args instead
(x,)
"""
__slots__ = ['_mhash', # hash value
'_args', # arguments
'_assumptions'
]
# To be overridden with True in the appropriate subclasses
is_number = False
is_Atom = False
is_Symbol = False
is_symbol = False
is_Indexed = False
is_Dummy = False
is_Wild = False
is_Function = False
is_Add = False
is_Mul = False
is_Pow = False
is_Number = False
is_Float = False
is_Rational = False
is_Integer = False
is_NumberSymbol = False
is_Order = False
is_Derivative = False
is_Piecewise = False
is_Poly = False
is_AlgebraicNumber = False
is_Relational = False
is_Equality = False
is_Boolean = False
is_Not = False
is_Matrix = False
is_Vector = False
is_Point = False
is_MatAdd = False
is_MatMul = False
def __new__(cls, *args):
obj = object.__new__(cls)
obj._assumptions = cls.default_assumptions
obj._mhash = None # will be set by __hash__ method.
obj._args = args # all items in args must be Basic objects
return obj
def copy(self):
return self.func(*self.args)
def __reduce_ex__(self, proto):
""" Pickling support."""
return type(self), self.__getnewargs__(), self.__getstate__()
def __getnewargs__(self):
return self.args
def __getstate__(self):
return {}
def __setstate__(self, state):
for k, v in state.items():
setattr(self, k, v)
def __hash__(self):
# hash cannot be cached using cache_it because infinite recurrence
# occurs as hash is needed for setting cache dictionary keys
h = self._mhash
if h is None:
h = hash((type(self).__name__,) + self._hashable_content())
self._mhash = h
return h
def _hashable_content(self):
"""Return a tuple of information about self that can be used to
compute the hash. If a class defines additional attributes,
like ``name`` in Symbol, then this method should be updated
accordingly to return such relevant attributes.
Defining more than _hashable_content is necessary if __eq__ has
been defined by a class. See note about this in Basic.__eq__."""
return self._args
@property
def assumptions0(self):
"""
Return object `type` assumptions.
For example:
Symbol('x', real=True)
Symbol('x', integer=True)
are different objects. In other words, besides Python type (Symbol in
this case), the initial assumptions are also forming their typeinfo.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Symbol
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> x.assumptions0
{'commutative': True}
>>> x = Symbol("x", positive=True)
>>> x.assumptions0
{'commutative': True, 'complex': True, 'hermitian': True,
'imaginary': False, 'negative': False, 'nonnegative': True,
'nonpositive': False, 'nonzero': True, 'positive': True, 'real': True,
'zero': False}
"""
return {}
[docs] def compare(self, other):
"""
Return -1, 0, 1 if the object is smaller, equal, or greater than other.
Not in the mathematical sense. If the object is of a different type
from the "other" then their classes are ordered according to
the sorted_classes list.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> x.compare(y)
-1
>>> x.compare(x)
0
>>> y.compare(x)
1
"""
# all redefinitions of __cmp__ method should start with the
# following lines:
if self is other:
return 0
n1 = self.__class__
n2 = other.__class__
c = (n1 > n2) - (n1 < n2)
if c:
return c
#
st = self._hashable_content()
ot = other._hashable_content()
c = (len(st) > len(ot)) - (len(st) < len(ot))
if c:
return c
for l, r in zip(st, ot):
l = Basic(*l) if isinstance(l, frozenset) else l
r = Basic(*r) if isinstance(r, frozenset) else r
if isinstance(l, Basic):
c = l.compare(r)
else:
c = (l > r) - (l < r)
if c:
return c
return 0
@staticmethod
def _compare_pretty(a, b):
from sympy.series.order import Order
if isinstance(a, Order) and not isinstance(b, Order):
return 1
if not isinstance(a, Order) and isinstance(b, Order):
return -1
if a.is_Rational and b.is_Rational:
l = a.p * b.q
r = b.p * a.q
return (l > r) - (l < r)
else:
from sympy.core.symbol import Wild
p1, p2, p3 = Wild("p1"), Wild("p2"), Wild("p3")
r_a = a.match(p1 * p2**p3)
if r_a and p3 in r_a:
a3 = r_a[p3]
r_b = b.match(p1 * p2**p3)
if r_b and p3 in r_b:
b3 = r_b[p3]
c = Basic.compare(a3, b3)
if c != 0:
return c
return Basic.compare(a, b)
[docs] @classmethod
def fromiter(cls, args, **assumptions):
"""
Create a new object from an iterable.
This is a convenience function that allows one to create objects from
any iterable, without having to convert to a list or tuple first.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Tuple
>>> Tuple.fromiter(i for i in range(5))
(0, 1, 2, 3, 4)
"""
return cls(*tuple(args), **assumptions)
[docs] @cacheit
def sort_key(self, order=None):
"""
Return a sort key.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.core import S, I
>>> sorted([S(1)/2, I, -I], key=lambda x: x.sort_key())
[1/2, -I, I]
>>> S("[x, 1/x, 1/x**2, x**2, x**(1/2), x**(1/4), x**(3/2)]")
[x, 1/x, x**(-2), x**2, sqrt(x), x**(1/4), x**(3/2)]
>>> sorted(_, key=lambda x: x.sort_key())
[x**(-2), 1/x, x**(1/4), sqrt(x), x, x**(3/2), x**2]
"""
# XXX: remove this when issue 5169 is fixed
def inner_key(arg):
if isinstance(arg, Basic):
return arg.sort_key(order)
else:
return arg
args = self._sorted_args
args = len(args), tuple([inner_key(arg) for arg in args])
return self.class_key(), args, S.One.sort_key(), S.One
def __eq__(self, other):
"""Return a boolean indicating whether a == b on the basis of
their symbolic trees.
This is the same as a.compare(b) == 0 but faster.
Notes
=====
If a class that overrides __eq__() needs to retain the
implementation of __hash__() from a parent class, the
interpreter must be told this explicitly by setting __hash__ =
<ParentClass>.__hash__. Otherwise the inheritance of __hash__()
will be blocked, just as if __hash__ had been explicitly set to
None.
References
==========
from http://docs.python.org/dev/reference/datamodel.html#object.__hash__
"""
if self is other:
return True
tself = type(self)
tother = type(other)
if type(self) is not type(other):
try:
other = _sympify(other)
tother = type(other)
except SympifyError:
return NotImplemented
# As long as we have the ordering of classes (sympy.core),
# comparing types will be slow in Python 2, because it uses
# __cmp__. Until we can remove it
# (https://github.com/sympy/sympy/issues/4269), we only compare
# types in Python 2 directly if they actually have __ne__.
if PY3 or type(tself).__ne__ is not type.__ne__:
if tself != tother:
return False
elif tself is not tother:
return False
return self._hashable_content() == other._hashable_content()
def __ne__(self, other):
"""a != b -> Compare two symbolic trees and see whether they are different
this is the same as:
a.compare(b) != 0
but faster
"""
return not self == other
[docs] def dummy_eq(self, other, symbol=None):
"""
Compare two expressions and handle dummy symbols.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Dummy
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> u = Dummy('u')
>>> (u**2 + 1).dummy_eq(x**2 + 1)
True
>>> (u**2 + 1) == (x**2 + 1)
False
>>> (u**2 + y).dummy_eq(x**2 + y, x)
True
>>> (u**2 + y).dummy_eq(x**2 + y, y)
False
"""
s = self.as_dummy()
o = _sympify(other)
o = o.as_dummy()
dummy_symbols = [i for i in s.free_symbols if i.is_Dummy]
if len(dummy_symbols) == 1:
dummy = dummy_symbols.pop()
else:
return s == o
if symbol is None:
symbols = o.free_symbols
if len(symbols) == 1:
symbol = symbols.pop()
else:
return s == o
tmp = dummy.__class__()
return s.subs(dummy, tmp) == o.subs(symbol, tmp)
# Note, we always use the default ordering (lex) in __str__ and __repr__,
# regardless of the global setting. See issue 5487.
def __repr__(self):
"""Method to return the string representation.
Return the expression as a string.
"""
from sympy.printing import sstr
return sstr(self, order=None)
def __str__(self):
from sympy.printing import sstr
return sstr(self, order=None)
[docs] def atoms(self, *types):
"""Returns the atoms that form the current object.
By default, only objects that are truly atomic and can't
be divided into smaller pieces are returned: symbols, numbers,
and number symbols like I and pi. It is possible to request
atoms of any type, however, as demonstrated below.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import I, pi, sin
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms()
{1, 2, I, pi, x, y}
If one or more types are given, the results will contain only
those types of atoms.
>>> from sympy import Number, NumberSymbol, Symbol
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(Symbol)
{x, y}
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(Number)
{1, 2}
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(Number, NumberSymbol)
{1, 2, pi}
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(Number, NumberSymbol, I)
{1, 2, I, pi}
Note that I (imaginary unit) and zoo (complex infinity) are special
types of number symbols and are not part of the NumberSymbol class.
The type can be given implicitly, too:
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(x) # x is a Symbol
{x, y}
Be careful to check your assumptions when using the implicit option
since ``S(1).is_Integer = True`` but ``type(S(1))`` is ``One``, a special type
of sympy atom, while ``type(S(2))`` is type ``Integer`` and will find all
integers in an expression:
>>> from sympy import S
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(S(1))
{1}
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(S(2))
{1, 2}
Finally, arguments to atoms() can select more than atomic atoms: any
sympy type (loaded in core/__init__.py) can be listed as an argument
and those types of "atoms" as found in scanning the arguments of the
expression recursively:
>>> from sympy import Function, Mul
>>> from sympy.core.function import AppliedUndef
>>> f = Function('f')
>>> (1 + f(x) + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(Function)
{f(x), sin(y + I*pi)}
>>> (1 + f(x) + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(AppliedUndef)
{f(x)}
>>> (1 + x + 2*sin(y + I*pi)).atoms(Mul)
{I*pi, 2*sin(y + I*pi)}
"""
if types:
types = tuple(
[t if isinstance(t, type) else type(t) for t in types])
else:
types = (Atom,)
result = set()
for expr in preorder_traversal(self):
if isinstance(expr, types):
result.add(expr)
return result
@property
def free_symbols(self):
"""Return from the atoms of self those which are free symbols.
For most expressions, all symbols are free symbols. For some classes
this is not true. e.g. Integrals use Symbols for the dummy variables
which are bound variables, so Integral has a method to return all
symbols except those. Derivative keeps track of symbols with respect
to which it will perform a derivative; those are
bound variables, too, so it has its own free_symbols method.
Any other method that uses bound variables should implement a
free_symbols method."""
return set().union(*[a.free_symbols for a in self.args])
@property
def expr_free_symbols(self):
return set([])
[docs] def as_dummy(self):
"""Return the expression with any objects having structurally
bound symbols replaced with unique, canonical symbols within
the object in which they appear and having only the default
assumption for commutativity being True.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Integral, Symbol
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> r = Symbol('r', real=True)
>>> Integral(r, (r, x)).as_dummy()
Integral(_0, (_0, x))
>>> _.variables[0].is_real is None
True
Notes
=====
Any object that has structural dummy variables should have
a property, `bound_symbols` that returns a list of structural
dummy symbols of the object itself.
Lambda and Subs have bound symbols, but because of how they
are cached, they already compare the same regardless of their
bound symbols:
>>> from sympy import Lambda
>>> Lambda(x, x + 1) == Lambda(y, y + 1)
True
"""
def can(x):
d = dict([(i, i.as_dummy()) for i in x.bound_symbols])
# mask free that shadow bound
x = x.subs(d)
c = x.canonical_variables
# replace bound
x = x.xreplace(c)
# undo masking
x = x.xreplace(dict((v, k) for k, v in d.items()))
return x
return self.replace(
lambda x: hasattr(x, 'bound_symbols'),
lambda x: can(x))
@property
def canonical_variables(self):
"""Return a dictionary mapping any variable defined in
``self.bound_symbols`` to Symbols that do not clash
with any existing symbol in the expression.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Lambda
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> Lambda(x, 2*x).canonical_variables
{x: _0}
"""
from sympy.core.symbol import Symbol
from sympy.utilities.iterables import numbered_symbols
if not hasattr(self, 'bound_symbols'):
return {}
dums = numbered_symbols('_')
reps = {}
v = self.bound_symbols
# this free will include bound symbols that are not part of
# self's bound symbols
free = set([i.name for i in self.atoms(Symbol) - set(v)])
for v in v:
d = next(dums)
if v.is_Symbol:
while v.name == d.name or d.name in free:
d = next(dums)
reps[v] = d
return reps
[docs] def rcall(self, *args):
"""Apply on the argument recursively through the expression tree.
This method is used to simulate a common abuse of notation for
operators. For instance in SymPy the the following will not work:
``(x+Lambda(y, 2*y))(z) == x+2*z``,
however you can use
>>> from sympy import Lambda
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y, z
>>> (x + Lambda(y, 2*y)).rcall(z)
x + 2*z
"""
return Basic._recursive_call(self, args)
@staticmethod
def _recursive_call(expr_to_call, on_args):
"""Helper for rcall method.
"""
from sympy import Symbol
def the_call_method_is_overridden(expr):
for cls in getmro(type(expr)):
if '__call__' in cls.__dict__:
return cls != Basic
if callable(expr_to_call) and the_call_method_is_overridden(expr_to_call):
if isinstance(expr_to_call, Symbol): # XXX When you call a Symbol it is
return expr_to_call # transformed into an UndefFunction
else:
return expr_to_call(*on_args)
elif expr_to_call.args:
args = [Basic._recursive_call(
sub, on_args) for sub in expr_to_call.args]
return type(expr_to_call)(*args)
else:
return expr_to_call
def is_hypergeometric(self, k):
from sympy.simplify import hypersimp
return hypersimp(self, k) is not None
@property
def is_comparable(self):
"""Return True if self can be computed to a real number
(or already is a real number) with precision, else False.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import exp_polar, pi, I
>>> (I*exp_polar(I*pi/2)).is_comparable
True
>>> (I*exp_polar(I*pi*2)).is_comparable
False
A False result does not mean that `self` cannot be rewritten
into a form that would be comparable. For example, the
difference computed below is zero but without simplification
it does not evaluate to a zero with precision:
>>> e = 2**pi*(1 + 2**pi)
>>> dif = e - e.expand()
>>> dif.is_comparable
False
>>> dif.n(2)._prec
1
"""
is_real = self.is_real
if is_real is False:
return False
if not self.is_number:
return False
# don't re-eval numbers that are already evaluated since
# this will create spurious precision
n, i = [p.evalf(2) if not p.is_Number else p
for p in self.as_real_imag()]
if not (i.is_Number and n.is_Number):
return False
if i:
# if _prec = 1 we can't decide and if not,
# the answer is False because numbers with
# imaginary parts can't be compared
# so return False
return False
else:
return n._prec != 1
@property
def func(self):
"""
The top-level function in an expression.
The following should hold for all objects::
>> x == x.func(*x.args)
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> a = 2*x
>>> a.func
<class 'sympy.core.mul.Mul'>
>>> a.args
(2, x)
>>> a.func(*a.args)
2*x
>>> a == a.func(*a.args)
True
"""
return self.__class__
@property
def args(self):
"""Returns a tuple of arguments of 'self'.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import cot
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> cot(x).args
(x,)
>>> cot(x).args[0]
x
>>> (x*y).args
(x, y)
>>> (x*y).args[1]
y
Notes
=====
Never use self._args, always use self.args.
Only use _args in __new__ when creating a new function.
Don't override .args() from Basic (so that it's easy to
change the interface in the future if needed).
"""
return self._args
@property
def _sorted_args(self):
"""
The same as ``args``. Derived classes which don't fix an
order on their arguments should override this method to
produce the sorted representation.
"""
return self.args
[docs] def as_poly(self, *gens, **args):
"""Converts ``self`` to a polynomial or returns ``None``.
>>> from sympy import sin
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> print((x**2 + x*y).as_poly())
Poly(x**2 + x*y, x, y, domain='ZZ')
>>> print((x**2 + x*y).as_poly(x, y))
Poly(x**2 + x*y, x, y, domain='ZZ')
>>> print((x**2 + sin(y)).as_poly(x, y))
None
"""
from sympy.polys import Poly, PolynomialError
try:
poly = Poly(self, *gens, **args)
if not poly.is_Poly:
return None
else:
return poly
except PolynomialError:
return None
[docs] def as_content_primitive(self, radical=False, clear=True):
"""A stub to allow Basic args (like Tuple) to be skipped when computing
the content and primitive components of an expression.
See Also
========
sympy.core.expr.Expr.as_content_primitive
"""
return S.One, self
[docs] def subs(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""
Substitutes old for new in an expression after sympifying args.
`args` is either:
- two arguments, e.g. foo.subs(old, new)
- one iterable argument, e.g. foo.subs(iterable). The iterable may be
o an iterable container with (old, new) pairs. In this case the
replacements are processed in the order given with successive
patterns possibly affecting replacements already made.
o a dict or set whose key/value items correspond to old/new pairs.
In this case the old/new pairs will be sorted by op count and in
case of a tie, by number of args and the default_sort_key. The
resulting sorted list is then processed as an iterable container
(see previous).
If the keyword ``simultaneous`` is True, the subexpressions will not be
evaluated until all the substitutions have been made.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import pi, exp, limit, oo
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> (1 + x*y).subs(x, pi)
pi*y + 1
>>> (1 + x*y).subs({x:pi, y:2})
1 + 2*pi
>>> (1 + x*y).subs([(x, pi), (y, 2)])
1 + 2*pi
>>> reps = [(y, x**2), (x, 2)]
>>> (x + y).subs(reps)
6
>>> (x + y).subs(reversed(reps))
x**2 + 2
>>> (x**2 + x**4).subs(x**2, y)
y**2 + y
To replace only the x**2 but not the x**4, use xreplace:
>>> (x**2 + x**4).xreplace({x**2: y})
x**4 + y
To delay evaluation until all substitutions have been made,
set the keyword ``simultaneous`` to True:
>>> (x/y).subs([(x, 0), (y, 0)])
0
>>> (x/y).subs([(x, 0), (y, 0)], simultaneous=True)
nan
This has the added feature of not allowing subsequent substitutions
to affect those already made:
>>> ((x + y)/y).subs({x + y: y, y: x + y})
1
>>> ((x + y)/y).subs({x + y: y, y: x + y}, simultaneous=True)
y/(x + y)
In order to obtain a canonical result, unordered iterables are
sorted by count_op length, number of arguments and by the
default_sort_key to break any ties. All other iterables are left
unsorted.
>>> from sympy import sqrt, sin, cos
>>> from sympy.abc import a, b, c, d, e
>>> A = (sqrt(sin(2*x)), a)
>>> B = (sin(2*x), b)
>>> C = (cos(2*x), c)
>>> D = (x, d)
>>> E = (exp(x), e)
>>> expr = sqrt(sin(2*x))*sin(exp(x)*x)*cos(2*x) + sin(2*x)
>>> expr.subs(dict([A, B, C, D, E]))
a*c*sin(d*e) + b
The resulting expression represents a literal replacement of the
old arguments with the new arguments. This may not reflect the
limiting behavior of the expression:
>>> (x**3 - 3*x).subs({x: oo})
nan
>>> limit(x**3 - 3*x, x, oo)
oo
If the substitution will be followed by numerical
evaluation, it is better to pass the substitution to
evalf as
>>> (1/x).evalf(subs={x: 3.0}, n=21)
0.333333333333333333333
rather than
>>> (1/x).subs({x: 3.0}).evalf(21)
0.333333333333333314830
as the former will ensure that the desired level of precision is
obtained.
See Also
========
replace: replacement capable of doing wildcard-like matching,
parsing of match, and conditional replacements
xreplace: exact node replacement in expr tree; also capable of
using matching rules
evalf: calculates the given formula to a desired level of precision
"""
from sympy.core.containers import Dict
from sympy.utilities import default_sort_key
from sympy import Dummy, Symbol
unordered = False
if len(args) == 1:
sequence = args[0]
if isinstance(sequence, set):
unordered = True
elif isinstance(sequence, (Dict, Mapping)):
unordered = True
sequence = sequence.items()
elif not iterable(sequence):
from sympy.utilities.misc import filldedent
raise ValueError(filldedent("""
When a single argument is passed to subs
it should be a dictionary of old: new pairs or an iterable
of (old, new) tuples."""))
elif len(args) == 2:
sequence = [args]
else:
raise ValueError("subs accepts either 1 or 2 arguments")
sequence = list(sequence)
for i, s in enumerate(sequence):
if type(s[0]) is str:
# when old is a string we prefer Symbol
s = Symbol(s[0]), s[1]
try:
s = [sympify(_, strict=type(_) is not str) for _ in s]
except SympifyError:
# if it can't be sympified, skip it
sequence[i] = None
continue
# skip if there is no change
sequence[i] = None if _aresame(*s) else tuple(s)
sequence = list(filter(None, sequence))
if unordered:
sequence = dict(sequence)
if not all(k.is_Atom for k in sequence):
d = {}
for o, n in sequence.items():
try:
ops = o.count_ops(), len(o.args)
except TypeError:
ops = (0, 0)
d.setdefault(ops, []).append((o, n))
newseq = []
for k in sorted(d.keys(), reverse=True):
newseq.extend(
sorted([v[0] for v in d[k]], key=default_sort_key))
sequence = [(k, sequence[k]) for k in newseq]
del newseq, d
else:
sequence = sorted([(k, v) for (k, v) in sequence.items()],
key=default_sort_key)
if kwargs.pop('simultaneous', False): # XXX should this be the default for dict subs?
reps = {}
rv = self
kwargs['hack2'] = True
m = Dummy()
for old, new in sequence:
d = Dummy(commutative=new.is_commutative)
# using d*m so Subs will be used on dummy variables
# in things like Derivative(f(x, y), x) in which x
# is both free and bound
rv = rv._subs(old, d*m, **kwargs)
if not isinstance(rv, Basic):
break
reps[d] = new
reps[m] = S.One # get rid of m
return rv.xreplace(reps)
else:
rv = self
for old, new in sequence:
rv = rv._subs(old, new, **kwargs)
if not isinstance(rv, Basic):
break
return rv
@cacheit
def _subs(self, old, new, **hints):
"""Substitutes an expression old -> new.
If self is not equal to old then _eval_subs is called.
If _eval_subs doesn't want to make any special replacement
then a None is received which indicates that the fallback
should be applied wherein a search for replacements is made
amongst the arguments of self.
>>> from sympy import Add
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y, z
Examples
========
Add's _eval_subs knows how to target x + y in the following
so it makes the change:
>>> (x + y + z).subs(x + y, 1)
z + 1
Add's _eval_subs doesn't need to know how to find x + y in
the following:
>>> Add._eval_subs(z*(x + y) + 3, x + y, 1) is None
True
The returned None will cause the fallback routine to traverse the args and
pass the z*(x + y) arg to Mul where the change will take place and the
substitution will succeed:
>>> (z*(x + y) + 3).subs(x + y, 1)
z + 3
** Developers Notes **
An _eval_subs routine for a class should be written if:
1) any arguments are not instances of Basic (e.g. bool, tuple);
2) some arguments should not be targeted (as in integration
variables);
3) if there is something other than a literal replacement
that should be attempted (as in Piecewise where the condition
may be updated without doing a replacement).
If it is overridden, here are some special cases that might arise:
1) If it turns out that no special change was made and all
the original sub-arguments should be checked for
replacements then None should be returned.
2) If it is necessary to do substitutions on a portion of
the expression then _subs should be called. _subs will
handle the case of any sub-expression being equal to old
(which usually would not be the case) while its fallback
will handle the recursion into the sub-arguments. For
example, after Add's _eval_subs removes some matching terms
it must process the remaining terms so it calls _subs
on each of the un-matched terms and then adds them
onto the terms previously obtained.
3) If the initial expression should remain unchanged then
the original expression should be returned. (Whenever an
expression is returned, modified or not, no further
substitution of old -> new is attempted.) Sum's _eval_subs
routine uses this strategy when a substitution is attempted
on any of its summation variables.
"""
def fallback(self, old, new):
"""
Try to replace old with new in any of self's arguments.
"""
hit = False
args = list(self.args)
for i, arg in enumerate(args):
if not hasattr(arg, '_eval_subs'):
continue
arg = arg._subs(old, new, **hints)
if not _aresame(arg, args[i]):
hit = True
args[i] = arg
if hit:
rv = self.func(*args)
hack2 = hints.get('hack2', False)
if hack2 and self.is_Mul and not rv.is_Mul: # 2-arg hack
coeff = S.One
nonnumber = []
for i in args:
if i.is_Number:
coeff *= i
else:
nonnumber.append(i)
nonnumber = self.func(*nonnumber)
if coeff is S.One:
return nonnumber
else:
return self.func(coeff, nonnumber, evaluate=False)
return rv
return self
if _aresame(self, old):
return new
rv = self._eval_subs(old, new)
if rv is None:
rv = fallback(self, old, new)
return rv
def _eval_subs(self, old, new):
"""Override this stub if you want to do anything more than
attempt a replacement of old with new in the arguments of self.
See also: _subs
"""
return None
[docs] def xreplace(self, rule):
"""
Replace occurrences of objects within the expression.
Parameters
==========
rule : dict-like
Expresses a replacement rule
Returns
=======
xreplace : the result of the replacement
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols, pi, exp
>>> x, y, z = symbols('x y z')
>>> (1 + x*y).xreplace({x: pi})
pi*y + 1
>>> (1 + x*y).xreplace({x: pi, y: 2})
1 + 2*pi
Replacements occur only if an entire node in the expression tree is
matched:
>>> (x*y + z).xreplace({x*y: pi})
z + pi
>>> (x*y*z).xreplace({x*y: pi})
x*y*z
>>> (2*x).xreplace({2*x: y, x: z})
y
>>> (2*2*x).xreplace({2*x: y, x: z})
4*z
>>> (x + y + 2).xreplace({x + y: 2})
x + y + 2
>>> (x + 2 + exp(x + 2)).xreplace({x + 2: y})
x + exp(y) + 2
xreplace doesn't differentiate between free and bound symbols. In the
following, subs(x, y) would not change x since it is a bound symbol,
but xreplace does:
>>> from sympy import Integral
>>> Integral(x, (x, 1, 2*x)).xreplace({x: y})
Integral(y, (y, 1, 2*y))
Trying to replace x with an expression raises an error:
>>> Integral(x, (x, 1, 2*x)).xreplace({x: 2*y}) # doctest: +SKIP
ValueError: Invalid limits given: ((2*y, 1, 4*y),)
See Also
========
replace: replacement capable of doing wildcard-like matching,
parsing of match, and conditional replacements
subs: substitution of subexpressions as defined by the objects
themselves.
"""
value, _ = self._xreplace(rule)
return value
def _xreplace(self, rule):
"""
Helper for xreplace. Tracks whether a replacement actually occurred.
"""
if self in rule:
return rule[self], True
elif rule:
args = []
changed = False
for a in self.args:
try:
a_xr = a._xreplace(rule)
args.append(a_xr[0])
changed |= a_xr[1]
except AttributeError:
args.append(a)
args = tuple(args)
if changed:
return self.func(*args), True
return self, False
[docs] @cacheit
def has(self, *patterns):
"""
Test whether any subexpression matches any of the patterns.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import sin
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y, z
>>> (x**2 + sin(x*y)).has(z)
False
>>> (x**2 + sin(x*y)).has(x, y, z)
True
>>> x.has(x)
True
Note ``has`` is a structural algorithm with no knowledge of
mathematics. Consider the following half-open interval:
>>> from sympy.sets import Interval
>>> i = Interval.Lopen(0, 5); i
Interval.Lopen(0, 5)
>>> i.args
(0, 5, True, False)
>>> i.has(4) # there is no "4" in the arguments
False
>>> i.has(0) # there *is* a "0" in the arguments
True
Instead, use ``contains`` to determine whether a number is in the
interval or not:
>>> i.contains(4)
True
>>> i.contains(0)
False
Note that ``expr.has(*patterns)`` is exactly equivalent to
``any(expr.has(p) for p in patterns)``. In particular, ``False`` is
returned when the list of patterns is empty.
>>> x.has()
False
"""
return any(self._has(pattern) for pattern in patterns)
def _has(self, pattern):
"""Helper for .has()"""
from sympy.core.function import UndefinedFunction, Function
if isinstance(pattern, UndefinedFunction):
return any(f.func == pattern or f == pattern
for f in self.atoms(Function, UndefinedFunction))
pattern = sympify(pattern)
if isinstance(pattern, BasicMeta):
return any(isinstance(arg, pattern)
for arg in preorder_traversal(self))
try:
match = pattern._has_matcher()
return any(match(arg) for arg in preorder_traversal(self))
except AttributeError:
return any(arg == pattern for arg in preorder_traversal(self))
def _has_matcher(self):
"""Helper for .has()"""
return lambda other: self == other
[docs] def replace(self, query, value, map=False, simultaneous=True, exact=False):
"""
Replace matching subexpressions of ``self`` with ``value``.
If ``map = True`` then also return the mapping {old: new} where ``old``
was a sub-expression found with query and ``new`` is the replacement
value for it. If the expression itself doesn't match the query, then
the returned value will be ``self.xreplace(map)`` otherwise it should
be ``self.subs(ordered(map.items()))``.
Traverses an expression tree and performs replacement of matching
subexpressions from the bottom to the top of the tree. The default
approach is to do the replacement in a simultaneous fashion so
changes made are targeted only once. If this is not desired or causes
problems, ``simultaneous`` can be set to False. In addition, if an
expression containing more than one Wild symbol is being used to match
subexpressions and the ``exact`` flag is True, then the match will only
succeed if non-zero values are received for each Wild that appears in
the match pattern.
The list of possible combinations of queries and replacement values
is listed below:
Examples
========
Initial setup
>>> from sympy import log, sin, cos, tan, Wild, Mul, Add
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> f = log(sin(x)) + tan(sin(x**2))
1.1. type -> type
obj.replace(type, newtype)
When object of type ``type`` is found, replace it with the
result of passing its argument(s) to ``newtype``.
>>> f.replace(sin, cos)
log(cos(x)) + tan(cos(x**2))
>>> sin(x).replace(sin, cos, map=True)
(cos(x), {sin(x): cos(x)})
>>> (x*y).replace(Mul, Add)
x + y
1.2. type -> func
obj.replace(type, func)
When object of type ``type`` is found, apply ``func`` to its
argument(s). ``func`` must be written to handle the number
of arguments of ``type``.
>>> f.replace(sin, lambda arg: sin(2*arg))
log(sin(2*x)) + tan(sin(2*x**2))
>>> (x*y).replace(Mul, lambda *args: sin(2*Mul(*args)))
sin(2*x*y)
2.1. pattern -> expr
obj.replace(pattern(wild), expr(wild))
Replace subexpressions matching ``pattern`` with the expression
written in terms of the Wild symbols in ``pattern``.
>>> a = Wild('a')
>>> f.replace(sin(a), tan(a))
log(tan(x)) + tan(tan(x**2))
>>> f.replace(sin(a), tan(a/2))
log(tan(x/2)) + tan(tan(x**2/2))
>>> f.replace(sin(a), a)
log(x) + tan(x**2)
>>> (x*y).replace(a*x, a)
y
When the default value of False is used with patterns that have
more than one Wild symbol, non-intuitive results may be obtained:
>>> b = Wild('b')
>>> (2*x).replace(a*x + b, b - a)
2/x
For this reason, the ``exact`` option can be used to make the
replacement only when the match gives non-zero values for all
Wild symbols:
>>> (2*x + y).replace(a*x + b, b - a, exact=True)
y - 2
>>> (2*x).replace(a*x + b, b - a, exact=True)
2*x
2.2. pattern -> func
obj.replace(pattern(wild), lambda wild: expr(wild))
All behavior is the same as in 2.1 but now a function in terms of
pattern variables is used rather than an expression:
>>> f.replace(sin(a), lambda a: sin(2*a))
log(sin(2*x)) + tan(sin(2*x**2))
3.1. func -> func
obj.replace(filter, func)
Replace subexpression ``e`` with ``func(e)`` if ``filter(e)``
is True.
>>> g = 2*sin(x**3)
>>> g.replace(lambda expr: expr.is_Number, lambda expr: expr**2)
4*sin(x**9)
The expression itself is also targeted by the query but is done in
such a fashion that changes are not made twice.
>>> e = x*(x*y + 1)
>>> e.replace(lambda x: x.is_Mul, lambda x: 2*x)
2*x*(2*x*y + 1)
See Also
========
subs: substitution of subexpressions as defined by the objects
themselves.
xreplace: exact node replacement in expr tree; also capable of
using matching rules
"""
from sympy.core.symbol import Dummy
from sympy.simplify.simplify import bottom_up
try:
query = sympify(query)
except SympifyError:
pass
try:
value = sympify(value)
except SympifyError:
pass
if isinstance(query, type):
_query = lambda expr: isinstance(expr, query)
if isinstance(value, type):
_value = lambda expr, result: value(*expr.args)
elif callable(value):
_value = lambda expr, result: value(*expr.args)
else:
raise TypeError(
"given a type, replace() expects another "
"type or a callable")
elif isinstance(query, Basic):
_query = lambda expr: expr.match(query)
# XXX remove the exact flag and make multi-symbol
# patterns use exact=True semantics; to do this the query must
# be tested to find out how many Wild symbols are present.
# See https://groups.google.com/forum/
# ?fromgroups=#!topic/sympy/zPzo5FtRiqI
# for a method of inspecting a function to know how many
# parameters it has.
if isinstance(value, Basic):
if exact:
_value = lambda expr, result: (value.subs(result)
if all(val for val in result.values()) else expr)
else:
_value = lambda expr, result: value.subs(result)
elif callable(value):
# match dictionary keys get the trailing underscore stripped
# from them and are then passed as keywords to the callable;
# if ``exact`` is True, only accept match if there are no null
# values amongst those matched.
if exact:
_value = lambda expr, result: (value(**dict([(
str(key)[:-1], val) for key, val in result.items()]))
if all(val for val in result.values()) else expr)
else:
_value = lambda expr, result: value(**dict([(
str(key)[:-1], val) for key, val in result.items()]))
else:
raise TypeError(
"given an expression, replace() expects "
"another expression or a callable")
elif callable(query):
_query = query
if callable(value):
_value = lambda expr, result: value(expr)
else:
raise TypeError(
"given a callable, replace() expects "
"another callable")
else:
raise TypeError(
"first argument to replace() must be a "
"type, an expression or a callable")
mapping = {} # changes that took place
mask = [] # the dummies that were used as change placeholders
def rec_replace(expr):
result = _query(expr)
if result or result == {}:
new = _value(expr, result)
if new is not None and new != expr:
mapping[expr] = new
if simultaneous:
# don't let this expression be changed during rebuilding
com = getattr(new, 'is_commutative', True)
if com is None:
com = True
d = Dummy(commutative=com)
mask.append((d, new))
expr = d
else:
expr = new
return expr
rv = bottom_up(self, rec_replace, atoms=True)
# restore original expressions for Dummy symbols
if simultaneous:
mask = list(reversed(mask))
for o, n in mask:
r = {o: n}
rv = rv.xreplace(r)
if not map:
return rv
else:
if simultaneous:
# restore subexpressions in mapping
for o, n in mask:
r = {o: n}
mapping = {k.xreplace(r): v.xreplace(r)
for k, v in mapping.items()}
return rv, mapping
[docs] def find(self, query, group=False):
"""Find all subexpressions matching a query. """
query = _make_find_query(query)
results = list(filter(query, preorder_traversal(self)))
if not group:
return set(results)
else:
groups = {}
for result in results:
if result in groups:
groups[result] += 1
else:
groups[result] = 1
return groups
[docs] def count(self, query):
"""Count the number of matching subexpressions. """
query = _make_find_query(query)
return sum(bool(query(sub)) for sub in preorder_traversal(self))
[docs] def matches(self, expr, repl_dict={}, old=False):
"""
Helper method for match() that looks for a match between Wild symbols
in self and expressions in expr.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols, Wild, Basic
>>> a, b, c = symbols('a b c')
>>> x = Wild('x')
>>> Basic(a + x, x).matches(Basic(a + b, c)) is None
True
>>> Basic(a + x, x).matches(Basic(a + b + c, b + c))
{x_: b + c}
"""
expr = sympify(expr)
if not isinstance(expr, self.__class__):
return None
if self == expr:
return repl_dict
if len(self.args) != len(expr.args):
return None
d = repl_dict.copy()
for arg, other_arg in zip(self.args, expr.args):
if arg == other_arg:
continue
d = arg.xreplace(d).matches(other_arg, d, old=old)
if d is None:
return None
return d
[docs] def match(self, pattern, old=False):
"""
Pattern matching.
Wild symbols match all.
Return ``None`` when expression (self) does not match
with pattern. Otherwise return a dictionary such that::
pattern.xreplace(self.match(pattern)) == self
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Wild
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> p = Wild("p")
>>> q = Wild("q")
>>> r = Wild("r")
>>> e = (x+y)**(x+y)
>>> e.match(p**p)
{p_: x + y}
>>> e.match(p**q)
{p_: x + y, q_: x + y}
>>> e = (2*x)**2
>>> e.match(p*q**r)
{p_: 4, q_: x, r_: 2}
>>> (p*q**r).xreplace(e.match(p*q**r))
4*x**2
The ``old`` flag will give the old-style pattern matching where
expressions and patterns are essentially solved to give the
match. Both of the following give None unless ``old=True``:
>>> (x - 2).match(p - x, old=True)
{p_: 2*x - 2}
>>> (2/x).match(p*x, old=True)
{p_: 2/x**2}
"""
pattern = sympify(pattern)
return pattern.matches(self, old=old)
[docs] def count_ops(self, visual=None):
"""wrapper for count_ops that returns the operation count."""
from sympy import count_ops
return count_ops(self, visual)
[docs] def doit(self, **hints):
"""Evaluate objects that are not evaluated by default like limits,
integrals, sums and products. All objects of this kind will be
evaluated recursively, unless some species were excluded via 'hints'
or unless the 'deep' hint was set to 'False'.
>>> from sympy import Integral
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> 2*Integral(x, x)
2*Integral(x, x)
>>> (2*Integral(x, x)).doit()
x**2
>>> (2*Integral(x, x)).doit(deep=False)
2*Integral(x, x)
"""
if hints.get('deep', True):
terms = [term.doit(**hints) if isinstance(term, Basic) else term
for term in self.args]
return self.func(*terms)
else:
return self
def _eval_rewrite(self, pattern, rule, **hints):
if self.is_Atom:
if hasattr(self, rule):
return getattr(self, rule)()
return self
if hints.get('deep', True):
args = [a._eval_rewrite(pattern, rule, **hints)
if isinstance(a, Basic) else a
for a in self.args]
else:
args = self.args
if pattern is None or isinstance(self, pattern):
if hasattr(self, rule):
rewritten = getattr(self, rule)(*args, **hints)
if rewritten is not None:
return rewritten
return self.func(*args) if hints.get('evaluate', True) else self
def _accept_eval_derivative(self, s):
# This method needs to be overridden by array-like objects
return s._visit_eval_derivative_scalar(self)
def _visit_eval_derivative_scalar(self, base):
# Base is a scalar
# Types are (base: scalar, self: scalar)
return base._eval_derivative(self)
def _visit_eval_derivative_array(self, base):
# Types are (base: array/matrix, self: scalar)
# Base is some kind of array/matrix,
# it should have `.applyfunc(lambda x: x.diff(self)` implemented:
return base._eval_derivative(self)
def _eval_derivative_n_times(self, s, n):
# This is the default evaluator for derivatives (as called by `diff`
# and `Derivative`), it will attempt a loop to derive the expression
# `n` times by calling the corresponding `_eval_derivative` method,
# while leaving the derivative unevaluated if `n` is symbolic. This
# method should be overridden if the object has a closed form for its
# symbolic n-th derivative.
from sympy import Integer
if isinstance(n, (int, Integer)):
obj = self
for i in range(n):
obj2 = obj._accept_eval_derivative(s)
if obj == obj2:
break
obj = obj2
return obj
else:
return None
[docs] def rewrite(self, *args, **hints):
""" Rewrite functions in terms of other functions.
Rewrites expression containing applications of functions
of one kind in terms of functions of different kind. For
example you can rewrite trigonometric functions as complex
exponentials or combinatorial functions as gamma function.
As a pattern this function accepts a list of functions to
to rewrite (instances of DefinedFunction class). As rule
you can use string or a destination function instance (in
this case rewrite() will use the str() function).
There is also the possibility to pass hints on how to rewrite
the given expressions. For now there is only one such hint
defined called 'deep'. When 'deep' is set to False it will
forbid functions to rewrite their contents.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import sin, exp
>>> from sympy.abc import x
Unspecified pattern:
>>> sin(x).rewrite(exp)
-I*(exp(I*x) - exp(-I*x))/2
Pattern as a single function:
>>> sin(x).rewrite(sin, exp)
-I*(exp(I*x) - exp(-I*x))/2
Pattern as a list of functions:
>>> sin(x).rewrite([sin, ], exp)
-I*(exp(I*x) - exp(-I*x))/2
"""
if not args:
return self
else:
pattern = args[:-1]
if isinstance(args[-1], string_types):
rule = '_eval_rewrite_as_' + args[-1]
else:
try:
rule = '_eval_rewrite_as_' + args[-1].__name__
except:
rule = '_eval_rewrite_as_' + args[-1].__class__.__name__
if not pattern:
return self._eval_rewrite(None, rule, **hints)
else:
if iterable(pattern[0]):
pattern = pattern[0]
pattern = [p for p in pattern if self.has(p)]
if pattern:
return self._eval_rewrite(tuple(pattern), rule, **hints)
else:
return self
_constructor_postprocessor_mapping = {}
@classmethod
def _exec_constructor_postprocessors(cls, obj):
# WARNING: This API is experimental.
# This is an experimental API that introduces constructor
# postprosessors for SymPy Core elements. If an argument of a SymPy
# expression has a `_constructor_postprocessor_mapping` attribute, it will
# be interpreted as a dictionary containing lists of postprocessing
# functions for matching expression node names.
clsname = obj.__class__.__name__
postprocessors = defaultdict(list)
for i in obj.args:
try:
if i in Basic._constructor_postprocessor_mapping:
for k, v in Basic._constructor_postprocessor_mapping[i].items():
postprocessors[k].extend([j for j in v if j not in postprocessors[k]])
else:
postprocessor_mappings = (
Basic._constructor_postprocessor_mapping[cls].items()
for cls in type(i).mro()
if cls in Basic._constructor_postprocessor_mapping
)
for k, v in chain.from_iterable(postprocessor_mappings):
postprocessors[k].extend([j for j in v if j not in postprocessors[k]])
except TypeError:
pass
for f in postprocessors.get(clsname, []):
obj = f(obj)
if len(postprocessors) > 0 and obj not in Basic._constructor_postprocessor_mapping:
Basic._constructor_postprocessor_mapping[obj] = postprocessors
return obj
[docs]class Atom(Basic):
"""
A parent class for atomic things. An atom is an expression with no subexpressions.
Examples
========
Symbol, Number, Rational, Integer, ...
But not: Add, Mul, Pow, ...
"""
is_Atom = True
__slots__ = []
def matches(self, expr, repl_dict={}, old=False):
if self == expr:
return repl_dict
def xreplace(self, rule, hack2=False):
return rule.get(self, self)
def doit(self, **hints):
return self
@classmethod
def class_key(cls):
return 2, 0, cls.__name__
@cacheit
def sort_key(self, order=None):
return self.class_key(), (1, (str(self),)), S.One.sort_key(), S.One
def _eval_simplify(self, ratio, measure, rational, inverse):
return self
@property
def _sorted_args(self):
# this is here as a safeguard against accidentally using _sorted_args
# on Atoms -- they cannot be rebuilt as atom.func(*atom._sorted_args)
# since there are no args. So the calling routine should be checking
# to see that this property is not called for Atoms.
raise AttributeError('Atoms have no args. It might be necessary'
' to make a check for Atoms in the calling code.')
def _aresame(a, b):
"""Return True if a and b are structurally the same, else False.
Examples
========
To SymPy, 2.0 == 2:
>>> from sympy import S
>>> 2.0 == S(2)
True
Since a simple 'same or not' result is sometimes useful, this routine was
written to provide that query:
>>> from sympy.core.basic import _aresame
>>> _aresame(S(2.0), S(2))
False
"""
from .function import AppliedUndef, UndefinedFunction as UndefFunc
for i, j in zip_longest(preorder_traversal(a), preorder_traversal(b)):
if i != j or type(i) != type(j):
if ((isinstance(i, UndefFunc) and isinstance(j, UndefFunc)) or
(isinstance(i, AppliedUndef) and isinstance(j, AppliedUndef))):
if i.class_key() != j.class_key():
return False
else:
return False
else:
return True
def _atomic(e, recursive=False):
"""Return atom-like quantities as far as substitution is
concerned: Derivatives, Functions and Symbols. Don't
return any 'atoms' that are inside such quantities unless
they also appear outside, too, unless `recursive` is True.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Derivative, Function, cos
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> from sympy.core.basic import _atomic
>>> f = Function('f')
>>> _atomic(x + y)
{x, y}
>>> _atomic(x + f(y))
{x, f(y)}
>>> _atomic(Derivative(f(x), x) + cos(x) + y)
{y, cos(x), Derivative(f(x), x)}
"""
from sympy import Derivative, Function, Symbol
pot = preorder_traversal(e)
seen = set()
if isinstance(e, Basic):
try:
free = e.free_symbols
except AttributeError:
return {e}
else:
return set()
atoms = set()
for p in pot:
if p in seen:
pot.skip()
continue
seen.add(p)
if isinstance(p, Symbol) and p in free:
atoms.add(p)
elif isinstance(p, (Derivative, Function)):
if not recursive:
pot.skip()
atoms.add(p)
return atoms
class preorder_traversal(Iterator):
"""
Do a pre-order traversal of a tree.
This iterator recursively yields nodes that it has visited in a pre-order
fashion. That is, it yields the current node then descends through the
tree breadth-first to yield all of a node's children's pre-order
traversal.
For an expression, the order of the traversal depends on the order of
.args, which in many cases can be arbitrary.
Parameters
==========
node : sympy expression
The expression to traverse.
keys : (default None) sort key(s)
The key(s) used to sort args of Basic objects. When None, args of Basic
objects are processed in arbitrary order. If key is defined, it will
be passed along to ordered() as the only key(s) to use to sort the
arguments; if ``key`` is simply True then the default keys of ordered
will be used.
Yields
======
subtree : sympy expression
All of the subtrees in the tree.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols
>>> from sympy.core.basic import preorder_traversal
>>> x, y, z = symbols('x y z')
The nodes are returned in the order that they are encountered unless key
is given; simply passing key=True will guarantee that the traversal is
unique.
>>> list(preorder_traversal((x + y)*z, keys=None)) # doctest: +SKIP
[z*(x + y), z, x + y, y, x]
>>> list(preorder_traversal((x + y)*z, keys=True))
[z*(x + y), z, x + y, x, y]
"""
def __init__(self, node, keys=None):
self._skip_flag = False
self._pt = self._preorder_traversal(node, keys)
def _preorder_traversal(self, node, keys):
yield node
if self._skip_flag:
self._skip_flag = False
return
if isinstance(node, Basic):
if not keys and hasattr(node, '_argset'):
# LatticeOp keeps args as a set. We should use this if we
# don't care about the order, to prevent unnecessary sorting.
args = node._argset
else:
args = node.args
if keys:
if keys != True:
args = ordered(args, keys, default=False)
else:
args = ordered(args)
for arg in args:
for subtree in self._preorder_traversal(arg, keys):
yield subtree
elif iterable(node):
for item in node:
for subtree in self._preorder_traversal(item, keys):
yield subtree
def skip(self):
"""
Skip yielding current node's (last yielded node's) subtrees.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.core import symbols
>>> from sympy.core.basic import preorder_traversal
>>> x, y, z = symbols('x y z')
>>> pt = preorder_traversal((x+y*z)*z)
>>> for i in pt:
... print(i)
... if i == x+y*z:
... pt.skip()
z*(x + y*z)
z
x + y*z
"""
self._skip_flag = True
def __next__(self):
return next(self._pt)
def __iter__(self):
return self
def _make_find_query(query):
"""Convert the argument of Basic.find() into a callable"""
try:
query = sympify(query)
except SympifyError:
pass
if isinstance(query, type):
return lambda expr: isinstance(expr, query)
elif isinstance(query, Basic):
return lambda expr: expr.match(query) is not None
return query
```