# Source code for sympy.solvers.solveset

```
"""
This module contains functions to:
- solve a single equation for a single variable, in any domain either real or complex.
- solve a single transcendental equation for a single variable in any domain either real or complex.
(currently supports solving in real domain only)
- solve a system of linear equations with N variables and M equations.
- solve a system of Non Linear Equations with N variables and M equations
"""
from __future__ import print_function, division
from sympy.core.sympify import sympify
from sympy.core import (S, Pow, Dummy, pi, Expr, Wild, Mul, Equality,
Add)
from sympy.core.containers import Tuple
from sympy.core.facts import InconsistentAssumptions
from sympy.core.numbers import I, Number, Rational, oo
from sympy.core.function import (Lambda, expand_complex, AppliedUndef,
expand_log, _mexpand)
from sympy.core.relational import Eq, Ne
from sympy.core.symbol import Symbol
from sympy.simplify.simplify import simplify, fraction, trigsimp
from sympy.simplify import powdenest, logcombine
from sympy.functions import (log, Abs, tan, cot, sin, cos, sec, csc, exp,
acos, asin, acsc, asec, arg,
piecewise_fold, Piecewise)
from sympy.functions.elementary.trigonometric import (TrigonometricFunction,
HyperbolicFunction)
from sympy.functions.elementary.miscellaneous import real_root
from sympy.logic.boolalg import And
from sympy.sets import (FiniteSet, EmptySet, imageset, Interval, Intersection,
Union, ConditionSet, ImageSet, Complement, Contains)
from sympy.sets.sets import Set
from sympy.matrices import Matrix, MatrixBase
from sympy.polys import (roots, Poly, degree, together, PolynomialError,
RootOf, factor)
from sympy.solvers.solvers import (checksol, denoms, unrad,
_simple_dens, recast_to_symbols)
from sympy.solvers.polysys import solve_poly_system
from sympy.solvers.inequalities import solve_univariate_inequality
from sympy.utilities import filldedent
from sympy.utilities.iterables import numbered_symbols, has_dups
from sympy.calculus.util import periodicity, continuous_domain
from sympy.core.compatibility import ordered, default_sort_key, is_sequence
from types import GeneratorType
from collections import defaultdict
def _masked(f, *atoms):
"""Return ``f``, with all objects given by ``atoms`` replaced with
Dummy symbols, ``d``, and the list of replacements, ``(d, e)``,
where ``e`` is an object of type given by ``atoms`` in which
any other instances of atoms have been recursively replaced with
Dummy symbols, too. The tuples are ordered so that if they are
applied in sequence, the origin ``f`` will be restored.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import cos
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _masked
>>> f = cos(cos(x) + 1)
>>> f, reps = _masked(cos(1 + cos(x)), cos)
>>> f
_a1
>>> reps
[(_a1, cos(_a0 + 1)), (_a0, cos(x))]
>>> for d, e in reps:
... f = f.xreplace({d: e})
>>> f
cos(cos(x) + 1)
"""
sym = numbered_symbols('a', cls=Dummy, real=True)
mask = []
for a in ordered(f.atoms(*atoms)):
for i in mask:
a = a.replace(*i)
mask.append((a, next(sym)))
for i, (o, n) in enumerate(mask):
f = f.replace(o, n)
mask[i] = (n, o)
mask = list(reversed(mask))
return f, mask
def _invert(f_x, y, x, domain=S.Complexes):
r"""
Reduce the complex valued equation ``f(x) = y`` to a set of equations
``{g(x) = h_1(y), g(x) = h_2(y), ..., g(x) = h_n(y) }`` where ``g(x)`` is
a simpler function than ``f(x)``. The return value is a tuple ``(g(x),
set_h)``, where ``g(x)`` is a function of ``x`` and ``set_h`` is
the set of function ``{h_1(y), h_2(y), ..., h_n(y)}``.
Here, ``y`` is not necessarily a symbol.
The ``set_h`` contains the functions, along with the information
about the domain in which they are valid, through set
operations. For instance, if ``y = Abs(x) - n`` is inverted
in the real domain, then ``set_h`` is not simply
`{-n, n}` as the nature of `n` is unknown; rather, it is:
`Intersection([0, oo) {n}) U Intersection((-oo, 0], {-n})`
By default, the complex domain is used which means that inverting even
seemingly simple functions like ``exp(x)`` will give very different
results from those obtained in the real domain.
(In the case of ``exp(x)``, the inversion via ``log`` is multi-valued
in the complex domain, having infinitely many branches.)
If you are working with real values only (or you are not sure which
function to use) you should probably set the domain to
``S.Reals`` (or use `invert\_real` which does that automatically).
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import invert_complex, invert_real
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y
>>> from sympy import exp, log
When does exp(x) == y?
>>> invert_complex(exp(x), y, x)
(x, ImageSet(Lambda(_n, I*(2*_n*pi + arg(y)) + log(Abs(y))), Integers))
>>> invert_real(exp(x), y, x)
(x, Intersection(Reals, {log(y)}))
When does exp(x) == 1?
>>> invert_complex(exp(x), 1, x)
(x, ImageSet(Lambda(_n, 2*_n*I*pi), Integers))
>>> invert_real(exp(x), 1, x)
(x, {0})
See Also
========
invert_real, invert_complex
"""
x = sympify(x)
if not x.is_Symbol:
raise ValueError("x must be a symbol")
f_x = sympify(f_x)
if x not in f_x.free_symbols:
raise ValueError("Inverse of constant function doesn't exist")
y = sympify(y)
if x in y.free_symbols:
raise ValueError("y should be independent of x ")
if domain.is_subset(S.Reals):
x1, s = _invert_real(f_x, FiniteSet(y), x)
else:
x1, s = _invert_complex(f_x, FiniteSet(y), x)
if not isinstance(s, FiniteSet) or x1 != x:
return x1, s
return x1, s.intersection(domain)
invert_complex = _invert
[docs]def invert_real(f_x, y, x, domain=S.Reals):
"""
Inverts a real-valued function. Same as _invert, but sets
the domain to ``S.Reals`` before inverting.
"""
return _invert(f_x, y, x, domain)
def _invert_real(f, g_ys, symbol):
"""Helper function for _invert."""
if f == symbol:
return (f, g_ys)
n = Dummy('n', real=True)
if hasattr(f, 'inverse') and not isinstance(f, (
TrigonometricFunction,
HyperbolicFunction,
)):
if len(f.args) > 1:
raise ValueError("Only functions with one argument are supported.")
return _invert_real(f.args[0],
imageset(Lambda(n, f.inverse()(n)), g_ys),
symbol)
if isinstance(f, Abs):
return _invert_abs(f.args[0], g_ys, symbol)
if f.is_Add:
# f = g + h
g, h = f.as_independent(symbol)
if g is not S.Zero:
return _invert_real(h, imageset(Lambda(n, n - g), g_ys), symbol)
if f.is_Mul:
# f = g*h
g, h = f.as_independent(symbol)
if g is not S.One:
return _invert_real(h, imageset(Lambda(n, n/g), g_ys), symbol)
if f.is_Pow:
base, expo = f.args
base_has_sym = base.has(symbol)
expo_has_sym = expo.has(symbol)
if not expo_has_sym:
res = imageset(Lambda(n, real_root(n, expo)), g_ys)
if expo.is_rational:
numer, denom = expo.as_numer_denom()
if denom % 2 == 0:
base_positive = solveset(base >= 0, symbol, S.Reals)
res = imageset(Lambda(n, real_root(n, expo)
), g_ys.intersect(
Interval.Ropen(S.Zero, S.Infinity)))
_inv, _set = _invert_real(base, res, symbol)
return (_inv, _set.intersect(base_positive))
elif numer % 2 == 0:
n = Dummy('n')
neg_res = imageset(Lambda(n, -n), res)
return _invert_real(base, res + neg_res, symbol)
else:
return _invert_real(base, res, symbol)
else:
if not base.is_positive:
raise ValueError("x**w where w is irrational is not "
"defined for negative x")
return _invert_real(base, res, symbol)
if not base_has_sym:
rhs = g_ys.args[0]
if base.is_positive:
return _invert_real(expo,
imageset(Lambda(n, log(n, base, evaluate=False)), g_ys), symbol)
elif base.is_negative:
from sympy.core.power import integer_log
s, b = integer_log(rhs, base)
if b:
return _invert_real(expo, FiniteSet(s), symbol)
else:
return _invert_real(expo, S.EmptySet, symbol)
elif base.is_zero:
one = Eq(rhs, 1)
if one == S.true:
# special case: 0**x - 1
return _invert_real(expo, FiniteSet(0), symbol)
elif one == S.false:
return _invert_real(expo, S.EmptySet, symbol)
if isinstance(f, TrigonometricFunction):
if isinstance(g_ys, FiniteSet):
def inv(trig):
if isinstance(f, (sin, csc)):
F = asin if isinstance(f, sin) else acsc
return (lambda a: n*pi + (-1)**n*F(a),)
if isinstance(f, (cos, sec)):
F = acos if isinstance(f, cos) else asec
return (
lambda a: 2*n*pi + F(a),
lambda a: 2*n*pi - F(a),)
if isinstance(f, (tan, cot)):
return (lambda a: n*pi + f.inverse()(a),)
n = Dummy('n', integer=True)
invs = S.EmptySet
for L in inv(f):
invs += Union(*[imageset(Lambda(n, L(g)), S.Integers) for g in g_ys])
return _invert_real(f.args[0], invs, symbol)
return (f, g_ys)
def _invert_complex(f, g_ys, symbol):
"""Helper function for _invert."""
if f == symbol:
return (f, g_ys)
n = Dummy('n')
if f.is_Add:
# f = g + h
g, h = f.as_independent(symbol)
if g is not S.Zero:
return _invert_complex(h, imageset(Lambda(n, n - g), g_ys), symbol)
if f.is_Mul:
# f = g*h
g, h = f.as_independent(symbol)
if g is not S.One:
if g in set([S.NegativeInfinity, S.ComplexInfinity, S.Infinity]):
return (h, S.EmptySet)
return _invert_complex(h, imageset(Lambda(n, n/g), g_ys), symbol)
if hasattr(f, 'inverse') and \
not isinstance(f, TrigonometricFunction) and \
not isinstance(f, HyperbolicFunction) and \
not isinstance(f, exp):
if len(f.args) > 1:
raise ValueError("Only functions with one argument are supported.")
return _invert_complex(f.args[0],
imageset(Lambda(n, f.inverse()(n)), g_ys), symbol)
if isinstance(f, exp):
if isinstance(g_ys, FiniteSet):
exp_invs = Union(*[imageset(Lambda(n, I*(2*n*pi + arg(g_y)) +
log(Abs(g_y))), S.Integers)
for g_y in g_ys if g_y != 0])
return _invert_complex(f.args[0], exp_invs, symbol)
return (f, g_ys)
def _invert_abs(f, g_ys, symbol):
"""Helper function for inverting absolute value functions.
Returns the complete result of inverting an absolute value
function along with the conditions which must also be satisfied.
If it is certain that all these conditions are met, a `FiniteSet`
of all possible solutions is returned. If any condition cannot be
satisfied, an `EmptySet` is returned. Otherwise, a `ConditionSet`
of the solutions, with all the required conditions specified, is
returned.
"""
if not g_ys.is_FiniteSet:
# this could be used for FiniteSet, but the
# results are more compact if they aren't, e.g.
# ConditionSet(x, Contains(n, Interval(0, oo)), {-n, n}) vs
# Union(Intersection(Interval(0, oo), {n}), Intersection(Interval(-oo, 0), {-n}))
# for the solution of abs(x) - n
pos = Intersection(g_ys, Interval(0, S.Infinity))
parg = _invert_real(f, pos, symbol)
narg = _invert_real(-f, pos, symbol)
if parg[0] != narg[0]:
raise NotImplementedError
return parg[0], Union(narg[1], parg[1])
# check conditions: all these must be true. If any are unknown
# then return them as conditions which must be satisfied
unknown = []
for a in g_ys.args:
ok = a.is_nonnegative if a.is_Number else a.is_positive
if ok is None:
unknown.append(a)
elif not ok:
return symbol, S.EmptySet
if unknown:
conditions = And(*[Contains(i, Interval(0, oo))
for i in unknown])
else:
conditions = True
n = Dummy('n', real=True)
# this is slightly different than above: instead of solving
# +/-f on positive values, here we solve for f on +/- g_ys
g_x, values = _invert_real(f, Union(
imageset(Lambda(n, n), g_ys),
imageset(Lambda(n, -n), g_ys)), symbol)
return g_x, ConditionSet(g_x, conditions, values)
[docs]def domain_check(f, symbol, p):
"""Returns False if point p is infinite or any subexpression of f
is infinite or becomes so after replacing symbol with p. If none of
these conditions is met then True will be returned.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Mul, oo
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import domain_check
>>> g = 1/(1 + (1/(x + 1))**2)
>>> domain_check(g, x, -1)
False
>>> domain_check(x**2, x, 0)
True
>>> domain_check(1/x, x, oo)
False
* The function relies on the assumption that the original form
of the equation has not been changed by automatic simplification.
>>> domain_check(x/x, x, 0) # x/x is automatically simplified to 1
True
* To deal with automatic evaluations use evaluate=False:
>>> domain_check(Mul(x, 1/x, evaluate=False), x, 0)
False
"""
f, p = sympify(f), sympify(p)
if p.is_infinite:
return False
return _domain_check(f, symbol, p)
def _domain_check(f, symbol, p):
# helper for domain check
if f.is_Atom and f.is_finite:
return True
elif f.subs(symbol, p).is_infinite:
return False
else:
return all([_domain_check(g, symbol, p)
for g in f.args])
def _is_finite_with_finite_vars(f, domain=S.Complexes):
"""
Return True if the given expression is finite. For symbols that
don't assign a value for `complex` and/or `real`, the domain will
be used to assign a value; symbols that don't assign a value
for `finite` will be made finite. All other assumptions are
left unmodified.
"""
def assumptions(s):
A = s.assumptions0
A.setdefault('finite', A.get('finite', True))
if domain.is_subset(S.Reals):
# if this gets set it will make complex=True, too
A.setdefault('real', True)
else:
# don't change 'real' because being complex implies
# nothing about being real
A.setdefault('complex', True)
return A
reps = {s: Dummy(**assumptions(s)) for s in f.free_symbols}
return f.xreplace(reps).is_finite
def _is_function_class_equation(func_class, f, symbol):
""" Tests whether the equation is an equation of the given function class.
The given equation belongs to the given function class if it is
comprised of functions of the function class which are multiplied by
or added to expressions independent of the symbol. In addition, the
arguments of all such functions must be linear in the symbol as well.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _is_function_class_equation
>>> from sympy import tan, sin, tanh, sinh, exp
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> from sympy.functions.elementary.trigonometric import (TrigonometricFunction,
... HyperbolicFunction)
>>> _is_function_class_equation(TrigonometricFunction, exp(x) + tan(x), x)
False
>>> _is_function_class_equation(TrigonometricFunction, tan(x) + sin(x), x)
True
>>> _is_function_class_equation(TrigonometricFunction, tan(x**2), x)
False
>>> _is_function_class_equation(TrigonometricFunction, tan(x + 2), x)
True
>>> _is_function_class_equation(HyperbolicFunction, tanh(x) + sinh(x), x)
True
"""
if f.is_Mul or f.is_Add:
return all(_is_function_class_equation(func_class, arg, symbol)
for arg in f.args)
if f.is_Pow:
if not f.exp.has(symbol):
return _is_function_class_equation(func_class, f.base, symbol)
else:
return False
if not f.has(symbol):
return True
if isinstance(f, func_class):
try:
g = Poly(f.args[0], symbol)
return g.degree() <= 1
except PolynomialError:
return False
else:
return False
def _solve_as_rational(f, symbol, domain):
""" solve rational functions"""
f = together(f, deep=True)
g, h = fraction(f)
if not h.has(symbol):
try:
return _solve_as_poly(g, symbol, domain)
except NotImplementedError:
# The polynomial formed from g could end up having
# coefficients in a ring over which finding roots
# isn't implemented yet, e.g. ZZ[a] for some symbol a
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
else:
valid_solns = _solveset(g, symbol, domain)
invalid_solns = _solveset(h, symbol, domain)
return valid_solns - invalid_solns
def _solve_trig(f, symbol, domain):
"""Function to call other helpers to solve trigonometric equations """
sol1 = sol = None
try:
sol1 = _solve_trig1(f, symbol, domain)
except BaseException as error:
pass
if sol1 is None or isinstance(sol1, ConditionSet):
try:
sol = _solve_trig2(f, symbol, domain)
except BaseException as error:
sol = sol1
if isinstance(sol1, ConditionSet) and isinstance(sol, ConditionSet):
if sol1.count_ops() < sol.count_ops():
sol = sol1
else:
sol = sol1
if sol is None:
raise NotImplementedError(filldedent('''
Solution to this kind of trigonometric equations
is yet to be implemented'''))
return sol
def _solve_trig1(f, symbol, domain):
"""Primary Helper to solve trigonometric equations """
f = trigsimp(f)
f_original = f
f = f.rewrite(exp)
f = together(f)
g, h = fraction(f)
y = Dummy('y')
g, h = g.expand(), h.expand()
g, h = g.subs(exp(I*symbol), y), h.subs(exp(I*symbol), y)
if g.has(symbol) or h.has(symbol):
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), S.Reals)
solns = solveset_complex(g, y) - solveset_complex(h, y)
if isinstance(solns, ConditionSet):
raise NotImplementedError
if isinstance(solns, FiniteSet):
if any(isinstance(s, RootOf) for s in solns):
raise NotImplementedError
result = Union(*[invert_complex(exp(I*symbol), s, symbol)[1]
for s in solns])
return Intersection(result, domain)
elif solns is S.EmptySet:
return S.EmptySet
else:
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f_original, 0), S.Reals)
def _solve_trig2(f, symbol, domain):
"""Secondary helper to solve trigonometric equations,
called when first helper fails """
from sympy import ilcm, igcd, expand_trig, degree, simplify
f = trigsimp(f)
f_original = f
trig_functions = f.atoms(sin, cos, tan, sec, cot, csc)
trig_arguments = [e.args[0] for e in trig_functions]
denominators = []
numerators = []
for ar in trig_arguments:
try:
poly_ar = Poly(ar, symbol)
except ValueError:
raise ValueError("give up, we can't solve if this is not a polynomial in x")
if poly_ar.degree() > 1: # degree >1 still bad
raise ValueError("degree of variable inside polynomial should not exceed one")
if poly_ar.degree() == 0: # degree 0, don't care
continue
c = poly_ar.all_coeffs()[0] # got the coefficient of 'symbol'
numerators.append(Rational(c).p)
denominators.append(Rational(c).q)
x = Dummy('x')
# ilcm() and igcd() require more than one argument
if len(numerators) > 1:
mu = Rational(2)*ilcm(*denominators)/igcd(*numerators)
else:
assert len(numerators) == 1
mu = Rational(2)*denominators[0]/numerators[0]
f = f.subs(symbol, mu*x)
f = f.rewrite(tan)
f = expand_trig(f)
f = together(f)
g, h = fraction(f)
y = Dummy('y')
g, h = g.expand(), h.expand()
g, h = g.subs(tan(x), y), h.subs(tan(x), y)
if g.has(x) or h.has(x):
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f_original, 0), domain)
solns = solveset(g, y, S.Reals) - solveset(h, y, S.Reals)
if isinstance(solns, FiniteSet):
result = Union(*[invert_real(tan(symbol/mu), s, symbol)[1]
for s in solns])
dsol = invert_real(tan(symbol/mu), oo, symbol)[1]
if degree(h) > degree(g): # If degree(denom)>degree(num) then there
result = Union(result, dsol) # would be another sol at Lim(denom-->oo)
return Intersection(result, domain)
elif solns is S.EmptySet:
return S.EmptySet
else:
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f_original, 0), S.Reals)
def _solve_as_poly(f, symbol, domain=S.Complexes):
"""
Solve the equation using polynomial techniques if it already is a
polynomial equation or, with a change of variables, can be made so.
"""
result = None
if f.is_polynomial(symbol):
solns = roots(f, symbol, cubics=True, quartics=True,
quintics=True, domain='EX')
num_roots = sum(solns.values())
if degree(f, symbol) <= num_roots:
result = FiniteSet(*solns.keys())
else:
poly = Poly(f, symbol)
solns = poly.all_roots()
if poly.degree() <= len(solns):
result = FiniteSet(*solns)
else:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
else:
poly = Poly(f)
if poly is None:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
gens = [g for g in poly.gens if g.has(symbol)]
if len(gens) == 1:
poly = Poly(poly, gens[0])
gen = poly.gen
deg = poly.degree()
poly = Poly(poly.as_expr(), poly.gen, composite=True)
poly_solns = FiniteSet(*roots(poly, cubics=True, quartics=True,
quintics=True).keys())
if len(poly_solns) < deg:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
if gen != symbol:
y = Dummy('y')
inverter = invert_real if domain.is_subset(S.Reals) else invert_complex
lhs, rhs_s = inverter(gen, y, symbol)
if lhs == symbol:
result = Union(*[rhs_s.subs(y, s) for s in poly_solns])
else:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
else:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
if result is not None:
if isinstance(result, FiniteSet):
# this is to simplify solutions like -sqrt(-I) to sqrt(2)/2
# - sqrt(2)*I/2. We are not expanding for solution with symbols
# or undefined functions because that makes the solution more complicated.
# For example, expand_complex(a) returns re(a) + I*im(a)
if all([s.atoms(Symbol, AppliedUndef) == set() and not isinstance(s, RootOf)
for s in result]):
s = Dummy('s')
result = imageset(Lambda(s, expand_complex(s)), result)
if isinstance(result, FiniteSet):
result = result.intersection(domain)
return result
else:
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
def _has_rational_power(expr, symbol):
"""
Returns (bool, den) where bool is True if the term has a
non-integer rational power and den is the denominator of the
expression's exponent.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _has_rational_power
>>> from sympy import sqrt
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> _has_rational_power(sqrt(x), x)
(True, 2)
>>> _has_rational_power(x**2, x)
(False, 1)
"""
a, p, q = Wild('a'), Wild('p'), Wild('q')
pattern_match = expr.match(a*p**q) or {}
if pattern_match.get(a, S.Zero) is S.Zero:
return (False, S.One)
elif p not in pattern_match.keys():
return (False, S.One)
elif isinstance(pattern_match[q], Rational) \
and pattern_match[p].has(symbol):
if not pattern_match[q].q == S.One:
return (True, pattern_match[q].q)
if not isinstance(pattern_match[a], Pow) \
or isinstance(pattern_match[a], Mul):
return (False, S.One)
else:
return _has_rational_power(pattern_match[a], symbol)
def _solve_radical(f, symbol, solveset_solver):
""" Helper function to solve equations with radicals """
eq, cov = unrad(f)
if not cov:
result = solveset_solver(eq, symbol) - \
Union(*[solveset_solver(g, symbol) for g in denoms(f, symbol)])
else:
y, yeq = cov
if not solveset_solver(y - I, y):
yreal = Dummy('yreal', real=True)
yeq = yeq.xreplace({y: yreal})
eq = eq.xreplace({y: yreal})
y = yreal
g_y_s = solveset_solver(yeq, symbol)
f_y_sols = solveset_solver(eq, y)
result = Union(*[imageset(Lambda(y, g_y), f_y_sols)
for g_y in g_y_s])
if isinstance(result, Complement) or isinstance(result,ConditionSet):
solution_set = result
else:
f_set = [] # solutions for FiniteSet
c_set = [] # solutions for ConditionSet
for s in result:
if checksol(f, symbol, s):
f_set.append(s)
else:
c_set.append(s)
solution_set = FiniteSet(*f_set) + ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), FiniteSet(*c_set))
return solution_set
def _solve_abs(f, symbol, domain):
""" Helper function to solve equation involving absolute value function """
if not domain.is_subset(S.Reals):
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
Absolute values cannot be inverted in the
complex domain.'''))
p, q, r = Wild('p'), Wild('q'), Wild('r')
pattern_match = f.match(p*Abs(q) + r) or {}
f_p, f_q, f_r = [pattern_match.get(i, S.Zero) for i in (p, q, r)]
if not (f_p.is_zero or f_q.is_zero):
domain = continuous_domain(f_q, symbol, domain)
q_pos_cond = solve_univariate_inequality(f_q >= 0, symbol,
relational=False, domain=domain, continuous=True)
q_neg_cond = q_pos_cond.complement(domain)
sols_q_pos = solveset_real(f_p*f_q + f_r,
symbol).intersect(q_pos_cond)
sols_q_neg = solveset_real(f_p*(-f_q) + f_r,
symbol).intersect(q_neg_cond)
return Union(sols_q_pos, sols_q_neg)
else:
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
def solve_decomposition(f, symbol, domain):
"""
Function to solve equations via the principle of "Decomposition
and Rewriting".
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import exp, sin, Symbol, pprint, S
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import solve_decomposition as sd
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> f1 = exp(2*x) - 3*exp(x) + 2
>>> sd(f1, x, S.Reals)
{0, log(2)}
>>> f2 = sin(x)**2 + 2*sin(x) + 1
>>> pprint(sd(f2, x, S.Reals), use_unicode=False)
3*pi
{2*n*pi + ---- | n in Integers}
2
>>> f3 = sin(x + 2)
>>> pprint(sd(f3, x, S.Reals), use_unicode=False)
{2*n*pi - 2 | n in Integers} U {2*n*pi - 2 + pi | n in Integers}
"""
from sympy.solvers.decompogen import decompogen
from sympy.calculus.util import function_range
# decompose the given function
g_s = decompogen(f, symbol)
# `y_s` represents the set of values for which the function `g` is to be
# solved.
# `solutions` represent the solutions of the equations `g = y_s` or
# `g = 0` depending on the type of `y_s`.
# As we are interested in solving the equation: f = 0
y_s = FiniteSet(0)
for g in g_s:
frange = function_range(g, symbol, domain)
y_s = Intersection(frange, y_s)
result = S.EmptySet
if isinstance(y_s, FiniteSet):
for y in y_s:
solutions = solveset(Eq(g, y), symbol, domain)
if not isinstance(solutions, ConditionSet):
result += solutions
else:
if isinstance(y_s, ImageSet):
iter_iset = (y_s,)
elif isinstance(y_s, Union):
iter_iset = y_s.args
elif isinstance(y_s, EmptySet):
# y_s is not in the range of g in g_s, so no solution exists
#in the given domain
return y_s
for iset in iter_iset:
new_solutions = solveset(Eq(iset.lamda.expr, g), symbol, domain)
dummy_var = tuple(iset.lamda.expr.free_symbols)[0]
base_set = iset.base_set
if isinstance(new_solutions, FiniteSet):
new_exprs = new_solutions
elif isinstance(new_solutions, Intersection):
if isinstance(new_solutions.args[1], FiniteSet):
new_exprs = new_solutions.args[1]
for new_expr in new_exprs:
result += ImageSet(Lambda(dummy_var, new_expr), base_set)
if result is S.EmptySet:
return ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
y_s = result
return y_s
def _solveset(f, symbol, domain, _check=False):
"""Helper for solveset to return a result from an expression
that has already been sympify'ed and is known to contain the
given symbol."""
# _check controls whether the answer is checked or not
from sympy.simplify.simplify import signsimp
orig_f = f
if f.is_Mul:
coeff, f = f.as_independent(symbol, as_Add=False)
if coeff in set([S.ComplexInfinity, S.NegativeInfinity, S.Infinity]):
f = together(orig_f)
elif f.is_Add:
a, h = f.as_independent(symbol)
m, h = h.as_independent(symbol, as_Add=False)
if m not in set([S.ComplexInfinity, S.Zero, S.Infinity,
S.NegativeInfinity]):
f = a/m + h # XXX condition `m != 0` should be added to soln
# assign the solvers to use
solver = lambda f, x, domain=domain: _solveset(f, x, domain)
inverter = lambda f, rhs, symbol: _invert(f, rhs, symbol, domain)
result = EmptySet()
if f.expand().is_zero:
return domain
elif not f.has(symbol):
return EmptySet()
elif f.is_Mul and all(_is_finite_with_finite_vars(m, domain)
for m in f.args):
# if f(x) and g(x) are both finite we can say that the solution of
# f(x)*g(x) == 0 is same as Union(f(x) == 0, g(x) == 0) is not true in
# general. g(x) can grow to infinitely large for the values where
# f(x) == 0. To be sure that we are not silently allowing any
# wrong solutions we are using this technique only if both f and g are
# finite for a finite input.
result = Union(*[solver(m, symbol) for m in f.args])
elif _is_function_class_equation(TrigonometricFunction, f, symbol) or \
_is_function_class_equation(HyperbolicFunction, f, symbol):
result = _solve_trig(f, symbol, domain)
elif isinstance(f, arg):
a = f.args[0]
result = solveset_real(a > 0, symbol)
elif f.is_Piecewise:
result = EmptySet()
expr_set_pairs = f.as_expr_set_pairs(domain)
for (expr, in_set) in expr_set_pairs:
if in_set.is_Relational:
in_set = in_set.as_set()
solns = solver(expr, symbol, in_set)
result += solns
elif isinstance(f, Eq):
result = solver(Add(f.lhs, - f.rhs, evaluate=False), symbol, domain)
elif f.is_Relational:
if not domain.is_subset(S.Reals):
raise NotImplementedError(filldedent('''
Inequalities in the complex domain are
not supported. Try the real domain by
setting domain=S.Reals'''))
try:
result = solve_univariate_inequality(
f, symbol, domain=domain, relational=False)
except NotImplementedError:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, f, domain)
return result
else:
lhs, rhs_s = inverter(f, 0, symbol)
if lhs == symbol:
# do some very minimal simplification since
# repeated inversion may have left the result
# in a state that other solvers (e.g. poly)
# would have simplified; this is done here
# rather than in the inverter since here it
# is only done once whereas there it would
# be repeated for each step of the inversion
if isinstance(rhs_s, FiniteSet):
rhs_s = FiniteSet(*[Mul(*
signsimp(i).as_content_primitive())
for i in rhs_s])
result = rhs_s
elif isinstance(rhs_s, FiniteSet):
for equation in [lhs - rhs for rhs in rhs_s]:
if equation == f:
if any(_has_rational_power(g, symbol)[0]
for g in equation.args) or _has_rational_power(
equation, symbol)[0]:
result += _solve_radical(equation,
symbol,
solver)
elif equation.has(Abs):
result += _solve_abs(f, symbol, domain)
else:
result_rational = _solve_as_rational(equation, symbol, domain)
if isinstance(result_rational, ConditionSet):
# may be a transcendental type equation
result += _transolve(equation, symbol, domain)
else:
result += result_rational
else:
result += solver(equation, symbol)
elif rhs_s is not S.EmptySet:
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
if isinstance(result, ConditionSet):
num, den = f.as_numer_denom()
if den.has(symbol):
_result = _solveset(num, symbol, domain)
if not isinstance(_result, ConditionSet):
singularities = _solveset(den, symbol, domain)
result = _result - singularities
if _check:
if isinstance(result, ConditionSet):
# it wasn't solved or has enumerated all conditions
# -- leave it alone
return result
# whittle away all but the symbol-containing core
# to use this for testing
fx = orig_f.as_independent(symbol, as_Add=True)[1]
fx = fx.as_independent(symbol, as_Add=False)[1]
if isinstance(result, FiniteSet):
# check the result for invalid solutions
result = FiniteSet(*[s for s in result
if isinstance(s, RootOf)
or domain_check(fx, symbol, s)])
return result
def _term_factors(f):
"""
Iterator to get the factors of all terms present
in the given equation.
Parameters
==========
f : Expr
Equation that needs to be addressed
Returns
=======
Factors of all terms present in the equation.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _term_factors
>>> x = symbols('x')
>>> list(_term_factors(-2 - x**2 + x*(x + 1)))
[-2, -1, x**2, x, x + 1]
"""
for add_arg in Add.make_args(f):
for mul_arg in Mul.make_args(add_arg):
yield mul_arg
[docs]def _solve_exponential(lhs, rhs, symbol, domain):
r"""
Helper function for solving (supported) exponential equations.
Exponential equations are the sum of (currently) at most
two terms with one or both of them having a power with a
symbol-dependent exponent.
For example
.. math:: 5^{2x + 3} - 5^{3x - 1}
.. math:: 4^{5 - 9x} - e^{2 - x}
Parameters
==========
lhs, rhs : Expr
The exponential equation to be solved, `lhs = rhs`
symbol : Symbol
The variable in which the equation is solved
domain : Set
A set over which the equation is solved.
Returns
=======
A set of solutions satisfying the given equation.
A `ConditionSet` if the equation is unsolvable or
if the assumptions are not properly defined, in that case
a different style of `ConditionSet` is returned having the
solution(s) of the equation with the desired assumptions.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _solve_exponential as solve_expo
>>> from sympy import symbols, S
>>> x = symbols('x', real=True)
>>> a, b = symbols('a b')
>>> solve_expo(2**x + 3**x - 5**x, 0, x, S.Reals) # not solvable
ConditionSet(x, Eq(2**x + 3**x - 5**x, 0), Reals)
>>> solve_expo(a**x - b**x, 0, x, S.Reals) # solvable but incorrect assumptions
ConditionSet(x, (a > 0) & (b > 0), {0})
>>> solve_expo(3**(2*x) - 2**(x + 3), 0, x, S.Reals)
{-3*log(2)/(-2*log(3) + log(2))}
>>> solve_expo(2**x - 4**x, 0, x, S.Reals)
{0}
* Proof of correctness of the method
The logarithm function is the inverse of the exponential function.
The defining relation between exponentiation and logarithm is:
.. math:: {log_b x} = y \enspace if \enspace b^y = x
Therefore if we are given an equation with exponent terms, we can
convert every term to its corresponding log form. This is achieved by
taking logarithms and expanding the equation using log identities
so that it can easily be handled by `solveset`.
For example:
.. math:: 3^{2x} = 2^{x + 3}
Taking log both sides will reduce the equation to
.. math:: (2x)*log(3) = (x + 3)*log(2)
This form can be easily handed by `solveset`.
"""
unsolved_result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(lhs - rhs), domain)
newlhs = powdenest(lhs)
if lhs != newlhs:
# it may also be advantageous to factor the new expr
return _solveset(factor(newlhs - rhs), symbol, domain) # try again with _solveset
if not (isinstance(lhs, Add) and len(lhs.args) == 2):
# solving for the sum of more than two powers is possible
# but not yet implemented
return unsolved_result
if rhs != 0:
return unsolved_result
a, b = list(ordered(lhs.args))
a_term = a.as_independent(symbol)[1]
b_term = b.as_independent(symbol)[1]
a_base, a_exp = a_term.base, a_term.exp
b_base, b_exp = b_term.base, b_term.exp
from sympy.functions.elementary.complexes import im
if domain.is_subset(S.Reals):
conditions = And(
a_base > 0,
b_base > 0,
Eq(im(a_exp), 0),
Eq(im(b_exp), 0))
else:
conditions = And(
Ne(a_base, 0),
Ne(b_base, 0))
L, R = map(lambda i: expand_log(log(i), force=True), (a, -b))
solutions = _solveset(L - R, symbol, domain)
return ConditionSet(symbol, conditions, solutions)
[docs]def _is_exponential(f, symbol):
r"""
Return True if one or more terms contain symbol only in exponents,
else False.
Parameters
==========
f : Expr
The equation to be checked
symbol : Symbol
The variable in which the equation is checked
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols, cos, exp
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _is_exponential as check
>>> x, y = symbols('x y')
>>> check(y, y)
False
>>> check(x**y - 1, y)
True
>>> check(x**y*2**y - 1, y)
True
>>> check(exp(x + 3) + 3**x, x)
True
>>> check(cos(2**x), x)
False
* Philosophy behind the helper
The function extracts each term of the equation and checks if it is
of exponential form w.r.t `symbol`.
"""
rv = False
for expr_arg in _term_factors(f):
if symbol not in expr_arg.free_symbols:
continue
if (isinstance(expr_arg, Pow) and
symbol not in expr_arg.base.free_symbols or
isinstance(expr_arg, exp)):
rv = True # symbol in exponent
else:
return False # dependent on symbol in non-exponential way
return rv
[docs]def _solve_logarithm(lhs, rhs, symbol, domain):
r"""
Helper to solve logarithmic equations which are reducible
to a single instance of `log`.
Logarithmic equations are (currently) the equations that contains
`log` terms which can be reduced to a single log term or
a constant using various logarithmic identities.
For example:
.. math:: log(x) + log(x - 4)
can be reduced to:
.. math:: log(x(x - 4))
Parameters
==========
lhs, rhs : Expr
The logarithmic equation to be solved, `lhs = rhs`
symbol : Symbol
The variable in which the equation is solved
domain : Set
A set over which the equation is solved.
Returns
=======
A set of solutions satisfying the given equation.
A `ConditionSet` if the equation is unsolvable.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols, log, S
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _solve_logarithm as solve_log
>>> x = symbols('x')
>>> f = log(x - 3) + log(x + 3)
>>> solve_log(f, 0, x, S.Reals)
{-sqrt(10), sqrt(10)}
* Proof of correctness
A logarithm is another way to write exponent and is defined by
.. math:: {log_b x} = y \enspace if \enspace b^y = x
When one side of the equation contains a single logarithm, the
equation can be solved by rewriting the equation as an equivalent
exponential equation as defined above. But if one side contains
more than one logarithm, we need to use the properties of logarithm
to condense it into a single logarithm.
Take for example
.. math:: log(2*x) - 15 = 0
contains single logarithm, therefore we can directly rewrite it to
exponential form as
.. math:: x = exp(15)/2
But if the equation has more than one logarithm as
.. math:: log(x - 3) + log(x + 3) = 0
we use log identities to convert into a reduced form
Using,
.. math:: log(a) + log(b) = log(a*b)
therefore the equation becomes,
.. math:: log((x - 3)*(x + 3))
This equation contains one logarithm and can be solved by rewriting
to exponents.
"""
new_lhs = logcombine(lhs, force=True)
new_f = new_lhs - rhs
return _solveset(new_f, symbol, domain)
[docs]def _is_logarithmic(f, symbol):
r"""
Return True if the equation is in the form
`a*log(f(x)) + b*log(g(x)) + ... + c` else False.
Parameters
==========
f : Expr
The equation to be checked
symbol : Symbol
The variable in which the equation is checked
Returns
=======
`True` if the equation is logarithmic otherwise `False`.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import symbols, tan, log
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _is_logarithmic as check
>>> x, y = symbols('x y')
>>> check(log(x + 2) - log(x + 3), x)
True
>>> check(tan(log(2*x)), x)
False
>>> check(x*log(x), x)
False
>>> check(x + log(x), x)
False
>>> check(y + log(x), x)
True
* Philosophy behind the helper
The function extracts each term and checks whether it is
logarithmic w.r.t `symbol`.
"""
rv = False
for term in Add.make_args(f):
saw_log = False
for term_arg in Mul.make_args(term):
if symbol not in term_arg.free_symbols:
continue
if isinstance(term_arg, log):
if saw_log:
return False # more than one log in term
saw_log = True
else:
return False # dependent on symbol in non-log way
if saw_log:
rv = True
return rv
[docs]def _transolve(f, symbol, domain):
r"""
Function to solve transcendental equations. It is a helper to
`solveset` and should be used internally. `\_transolve`
currently supports the following class of equations:
- Exponential equations
- Logarithmic equations
Parameters
==========
f : Any transcendental equation that needs to be solved.
This needs to be an expression, which is assumed
to be equal to 0.
symbol : The variable for which the equation is solved.
This needs to be of class `Symbol`.
domain : A set over which the equation is solved.
This needs to be of class `Set`.
Returns
=======
Set
A set of values for `symbol` for which `f` is equal to
zero. An `EmptySet` is returned if `f` does not have solutions
in respective domain. A `ConditionSet` is returned as unsolved
object if algorithms to evaluate complete solution are not
yet implemented.
How to use `\_transolve`
========================
`\_transolve` should not be used as an independent function, because
it assumes that the equation (`f`) and the `symbol` comes from
`solveset` and might have undergone a few modification(s).
To use `\_transolve` as an independent function the equation (`f`)
and the `symbol` should be passed as they would have been by
`solveset`.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import _transolve as transolve
>>> from sympy.solvers.solvers import _tsolve as tsolve
>>> from sympy import symbols, S, pprint
>>> x = symbols('x', real=True) # assumption added
>>> transolve(5**(x - 3) - 3**(2*x + 1), x, S.Reals)
{-(log(3) + 3*log(5))/(-log(5) + 2*log(3))}
How `\_transolve` works
=======================
`\_transolve` uses two types of helper functions to solve equations
of a particular class:
Identifying helpers: To determine whether a given equation
belongs to a certain class of equation or not. Returns either
True or False.
Solving helpers: Once an equation is identified, a corresponding
helper either solves the equation or returns a form of the equation
that `solveset` might better be able to handle.
* Philosophy behind the module
The purpose of `\_transolve` is to take equations which are not
already polynomial in their generator(s) and to either recast them
as such through a valid transformation or to solve them outright.
A pair of helper functions for each class of supported
transcendental functions are employed for this purpose. One
identifies the transcendental form of an equation and the other
either solves it or recasts it into a tractable form that can be
solved by `solveset`.
For example, an equation in the form `a*b**f(x) - c*d**g(x) = 0`
can be transformed to
`log(a) + f(x)*log(b) - log(c) - g(x)*log(d) = 0`
(under certain assumptions) and this can be solved with `solveset`
if `f(x)` and `g(x)` are in polynomial form.
How `\_transolve` is better than `\_tsolve`
===========================================
1) Better output
`\_transolve` provides expressions in a more simplified form.
Consider a simple exponential equation
>>> f = 3**(2*x) - 2**(x + 3)
>>> pprint(transolve(f, x, S.Reals), use_unicode=False)
-3*log(2)
{------------------}
-2*log(3) + log(2)
>>> pprint(tsolve(f, x), use_unicode=False)
/ 3 \
| --------|
| log(2/9)|
[-log\2 /]
2) Extensible
The API of `\_transolve` is designed such that it is easily
extensible, i.e. the code that solves a given class of
equations is encapsulated in a helper and not mixed in with
the code of \_transolve itself.
3) Modular
`\_transolve` is designed to be modular i.e, for every class of
equation a separate helper for identification and solving is
implemented. This makes it easy to change or modify any of the
method implemented directly in the helpers without interfering
with the actual structure of the API.
4) Faster Computation
Solving equation via `\_transolve` is much faster as compared to
`\_tsolve`. In `solve`, attempts are made computing every possibility
to get the solutions. This series of attempts makes solving a bit
slow. In `\_transolve`, computation begins only after a particular
type of equation is identified.
How to add new class of equations
=================================
Adding a new class of equation solver is a three-step procedure:
- Identify the type of the equations
Determine the type of the class of equations to which they belong:
it could be of `Add`, `Pow`, etc. types. Separate internal functions
are used for each type. Write identification and solving helpers
and use them from within the routine for the given type of equation
(after adding it, if necessary). Something like:
.. code-block:: python
def add_type(lhs, rhs, x):
....
if _is_exponential(lhs, x):
new_eq = _solve_exponential(lhs, rhs, x)
....
rhs, lhs = eq.as_independent(x)
if lhs.is_Add:
result = add_type(lhs, rhs, x)
- Define the identification helper.
- Define the solving helper.
Apart from this, a few other things needs to be taken care while
adding an equation solver:
- Naming conventions:
Name of the *identification* *helper* should be as
`\_is\_class` where `class` will be the name or abbreviation
of the class of equation. The *solving* *helper* will be named as
`\_solve\_class`.
For example: for exponential equations it becomes
`\_is\_exponential` and `\_solve\_expo`.
- The `identifying helpers`should take two input parameters,
the equation to be checked and the variable for which a solution
is being sought, while `solving helpers` would require an additional
domain parameter.
- Be sure to consider corner cases.
- Add tests for each helper.
- Add a docstring to your helper that describes the method
implemented.
The documentation of the helpers should identify:
- the purpose of the helper,
- the method used to identify and solve the equation,
- a proof of correctness
- the return values of the helpers
"""
def add_type(lhs, rhs, symbol, domain):
"""
Helper for `_transolve` to handle equations of
`Add` type, i.e. equations taking the form as
`a*f(x) + b*g(x) + .... = c`.
For example: 4**x + 8**x = 0
"""
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(lhs - rhs, 0), domain)
# check if it is exponential type equation
if _is_exponential(lhs, symbol):
result = _solve_exponential(lhs, rhs, symbol, domain)
# check if it is logarithmic type equation
elif _is_logarithmic(lhs, symbol):
result = _solve_logarithm(lhs, rhs, symbol, domain)
return result
result = ConditionSet(symbol, Eq(f, 0), domain)
# invert_complex handles the call to the desired inverter based
# on the domain specified.
lhs, rhs_s = invert_complex(f, 0, symbol, domain)
if isinstance(rhs_s, FiniteSet):
assert (len(rhs_s.args)) == 1
rhs = rhs_s.args[0]
if lhs.is_Add:
result = add_type(lhs, rhs, symbol, domain)
else:
result = rhs_s
return result
[docs]def solveset(f, symbol=None, domain=S.Complexes):
r"""Solves a given inequality or equation with set as output
Parameters
==========
f : Expr or a relational.
The target equation or inequality
symbol : Symbol
The variable for which the equation is solved
domain : Set
The domain over which the equation is solved
Returns
=======
Set
A set of values for `symbol` for which `f` is True or is equal to
zero. An `EmptySet` is returned if `f` is False or nonzero.
A `ConditionSet` is returned as unsolved object if algorithms
to evaluate complete solution are not yet implemented.
`solveset` claims to be complete in the solution set that it returns.
Raises
======
NotImplementedError
The algorithms to solve inequalities in complex domain are
not yet implemented.
ValueError
The input is not valid.
RuntimeError
It is a bug, please report to the github issue tracker.
Notes
=====
Python interprets 0 and 1 as False and True, respectively, but
in this function they refer to solutions of an expression. So 0 and 1
return the Domain and EmptySet, respectively, while True and False
return the opposite (as they are assumed to be solutions of relational
expressions).
See Also
========
solveset_real: solver for real domain
solveset_complex: solver for complex domain
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import exp, sin, Symbol, pprint, S
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import solveset, solveset_real
* The default domain is complex. Not specifying a domain will lead
to the solving of the equation in the complex domain (and this
is not affected by the assumptions on the symbol):
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> pprint(solveset(exp(x) - 1, x), use_unicode=False)
{2*n*I*pi | n in Integers}
>>> x = Symbol('x', real=True)
>>> pprint(solveset(exp(x) - 1, x), use_unicode=False)
{2*n*I*pi | n in Integers}
* If you want to use `solveset` to solve the equation in the
real domain, provide a real domain. (Using `solveset\_real`
does this automatically.)
>>> R = S.Reals
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> solveset(exp(x) - 1, x, R)
{0}
>>> solveset_real(exp(x) - 1, x)
{0}
The solution is mostly unaffected by assumptions on the symbol,
but there may be some slight difference:
>>> pprint(solveset(sin(x)/x,x), use_unicode=False)
({2*n*pi | n in Integers} \ {0}) U ({2*n*pi + pi | n in Integers} \ {0})
>>> p = Symbol('p', positive=True)
>>> pprint(solveset(sin(p)/p, p), use_unicode=False)
{2*n*pi | n in Integers} U {2*n*pi + pi | n in Integers}
* Inequalities can be solved over the real domain only. Use of a complex
domain leads to a NotImplementedError.
>>> solveset(exp(x) > 1, x, R)
Interval.open(0, oo)
"""
f = sympify(f)
symbol = sympify(symbol)
if f is S.true:
return domain
if f is S.false:
return S.EmptySet
if not isinstance(f, (Expr, Number)):
raise ValueError("%s is not a valid SymPy expression" % f)
if not isinstance(symbol, Expr) and symbol is not None:
raise ValueError("%s is not a valid SymPy symbol" % symbol)
if not isinstance(domain, Set):
raise ValueError("%s is not a valid domain" %(domain))
free_symbols = f.free_symbols
if symbol is None and not free_symbols:
b = Eq(f, 0)
if b is S.true:
return domain
elif b is S.false:
return S.EmptySet
else:
raise NotImplementedError(filldedent('''
relationship between value and 0 is unknown: %s''' % b))
if symbol is None:
if len(free_symbols) == 1:
symbol = free_symbols.pop()
elif free_symbols:
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
The independent variable must be specified for a
multivariate equation.'''))
elif not isinstance(symbol, Symbol):
f, s, swap = recast_to_symbols([f], [symbol])
# the xreplace will be needed if a ConditionSet is returned
return solveset(f[0], s[0], domain).xreplace(swap)
if domain.is_subset(S.Reals):
if not symbol.is_real:
assumptions = symbol.assumptions0
assumptions['real'] = True
try:
r = Dummy('r', **assumptions)
return solveset(f.xreplace({symbol: r}), r, domain
).xreplace({r: symbol})
except InconsistentAssumptions:
pass
# Abs has its own handling method which avoids the
# rewriting property that the first piece of abs(x)
# is for x >= 0 and the 2nd piece for x < 0 -- solutions
# can look better if the 2nd condition is x <= 0. Since
# the solution is a set, duplication of results is not
# an issue, e.g. {y, -y} when y is 0 will be {0}
f, mask = _masked(f, Abs)
f = f.rewrite(Piecewise) # everything that's not an Abs
for d, e in mask:
# everything *in* an Abs
e = e.func(e.args[0].rewrite(Piecewise))
f = f.xreplace({d: e})
f = piecewise_fold(f)
return _solveset(f, symbol, domain, _check=True)
def solvify(f, symbol, domain):
"""Solves an equation using solveset and returns the solution in accordance
with the `solve` output API.
Returns
=======
We classify the output based on the type of solution returned by `solveset`.
Solution | Output
----------------------------------------
FiniteSet | list
ImageSet, | list (if `f` is periodic)
Union |
EmptySet | empty list
Others | None
Raises
======
NotImplementedError
A ConditionSet is the input.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import solvify, solveset
>>> from sympy.abc import x
>>> from sympy import S, tan, sin, exp
>>> solvify(x**2 - 9, x, S.Reals)
[-3, 3]
>>> solvify(sin(x) - 1, x, S.Reals)
[pi/2]
>>> solvify(tan(x), x, S.Reals)
[0]
>>> solvify(exp(x) - 1, x, S.Complexes)
>>> solvify(exp(x) - 1, x, S.Reals)
[0]
"""
solution_set = solveset(f, symbol, domain)
result = None
if solution_set is S.EmptySet:
result = []
elif isinstance(solution_set, ConditionSet):
raise NotImplementedError('solveset is unable to solve this equation.')
elif isinstance(solution_set, FiniteSet):
result = list(solution_set)
else:
period = periodicity(f, symbol)
if period is not None:
solutions = S.EmptySet
iter_solutions = ()
if isinstance(solution_set, ImageSet):
iter_solutions = (solution_set,)
elif isinstance(solution_set, Union):
if all(isinstance(i, ImageSet) for i in solution_set.args):
iter_solutions = solution_set.args
for solution in iter_solutions:
solutions += solution.intersect(Interval(0, period, False, True))
if isinstance(solutions, FiniteSet):
result = list(solutions)
else:
solution = solution_set.intersect(domain)
if isinstance(solution, FiniteSet):
result += solution
return result
###############################################################################
################################ LINSOLVE #####################################
###############################################################################
def linear_coeffs(eq, *syms):
"""Return a dictionary with symbols in `syms` keyed to the
coefficient of the corresponding symbol in `eq`. The additive
constant is returned with key 0.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import linear_coeffs
>>> from sympy.abc import x, y, z
>>> linear_coeffs(2*x - 1, x, y)
{0: -1, x: 2}
It is not necessary to expand the expression:
>>> linear_coeffs(x + y*(z*(3*x + 2) + 3), x)
{0: y*(2*z + 3), x: 3*y*z + 1}
But if there are nonlinear or cross terms -- even if they would
cancel after simplification -- an error is raised so the situation
does not pass silently past the caller's attention:
>>> eq = 1/x*(x - 1) + 1/x
>>> linear_coeffs(eq.expand(), x)
{0: 1}
>>> linear_coeffs(eq, x)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: nonlinear term encountered: 1/x
>>> linear_coeffs(x*(y + 1) - x*y, x, y)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: nonlinear term encountered: x*(y + 1)
"""
d = defaultdict(list)
c, terms = eq.as_coeff_add(*syms)
d[0].append(c)
for t in terms:
m, f = t.as_coeff_mul(*syms)
if len(f) != 1:
break
f = f[0]
if f in syms:
d[f].append(m)
elif f.is_Add:
d1 = linear_coeffs(f, *syms)
d[0].append(m*d1.pop(0))
xf, vf = list(d1.items())[0]
d[xf].append(m*vf)
else:
break
else:
for k, v in d.items():
d[k] = Add(*v)
return defaultdict(lambda: S.Zero, d) # default now zero
raise ValueError('nonlinear term encountered: %s' % t)
[docs]def linear_eq_to_matrix(equations, *symbols):
r"""
Converts a given System of Equations into Matrix form.
Here `equations` must be a linear system of equations in
`symbols`. Element M[i, j] corresponds to the coefficient
of the jth symbol in the ith equation.
The Matrix form corresponds to the augmented matrix form.
For example:
.. math:: 4x + 2y + 3z = 1
.. math:: 3x + y + z = -6
.. math:: 2x + 4y + 9z = 2
This system would return `A` & `b` as given below:
::
[ 4 2 3 ] [ 1 ]
A = [ 3 1 1 ] b = [-6 ]
[ 2 4 9 ] [ 2 ]
The only simplification performed is to convert
`Eq(a, b) -> a - b`.
Raises
======
ValueError
The equations contain a nonlinear term.
The symbols are not given or are not unique.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import linear_eq_to_matrix, symbols
>>> c, x, y, z = symbols('c, x, y, z')
The coefficients (numerical or symbolic) of the symbols will
be returned as matrices:
>>> eqns = [c*x + z - 1 - c, y + z, x - y]
>>> A, b = linear_eq_to_matrix(eqns, [x, y, z])
>>> A
Matrix([
[c, 0, 1],
[0, 1, 1],
[1, -1, 0]])
>>> b
Matrix([
[c + 1],
[ 0],
[ 0]])
This routine does not simplify expressions and will raise an error
if nonlinearity is encountered:
>>> eqns = [
... (x**2 - 3*x)/(x - 3) - 3,
... y**2 - 3*y - y*(y - 4) + x - 4]
>>> linear_eq_to_matrix(eqns, [x, y])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError:
The term (x**2 - 3*x)/(x - 3) is nonlinear in {x, y}
Simplifying these equations will discard the removable singularity
in the first, reveal the linear structure of the second:
>>> [e.simplify() for e in eqns]
[x - 3, x + y - 4]
Any such simplification needed to eliminate nonlinear terms must
be done before calling this routine.
"""
if not symbols:
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
Symbols must be given, for which coefficients
are to be found.
'''))
if hasattr(symbols[0], '__iter__'):
symbols = symbols[0]
for i in symbols:
if not isinstance(i, Symbol):
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
Expecting a Symbol but got %s
''' % i))
if has_dups(symbols):
raise ValueError('Symbols must be unique')
equations = sympify(equations)
if isinstance(equations, MatrixBase):
equations = list(equations)
elif isinstance(equations, Expr):
equations = [equations]
elif not is_sequence(equations):
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
Equation(s) must be given as a sequence, Expr,
Eq or Matrix.
'''))
A, b = [], []
for i, f in enumerate(equations):
if isinstance(f, Equality):
# non-cancelling method of creating expr; we
# don't care about the order of the args or
# else we would use _unevaluated_Add
f = Add._from_args(
Add.make_args(f.lhs) +
Add.make_args(-f.rhs))
co = linear_coeffs(f, *symbols)
coeff_list = [co[i] for i in symbols]
b.append(-co[0])
A.append(coeff_list)
A, b = map(Matrix, (A, b))
return A, b
[docs]def linsolve(system, *symbols):
r"""
Solve system of N linear equations with M variables, which
means both under - and overdetermined systems are supported.
The possible number of solutions is zero, one or infinite.
Zero solutions throws a ValueError, where as infinite
solutions are represented parametrically in terms of given
symbols. For unique solution a FiniteSet of ordered tuple
is returned.
All Standard input formats are supported:
For the given set of Equations, the respective input types
are given below:
.. math:: 3x + 2y - z = 1
.. math:: 2x - 2y + 4z = -2
.. math:: 2x - y + 2z = 0
* Augmented Matrix Form, `system` given below:
::
[3 2 -1 1]
system = [2 -2 4 -2]
[2 -1 2 0]
* List Of Equations Form
`system = [3x + 2y - z - 1, 2x - 2y + 4z + 2, 2x - y + 2z]`
* Input A & b Matrix Form (from Ax = b) are given as below:
::
[3 2 -1 ] [ 1 ]
A = [2 -2 4 ] b = [ -2 ]
[2 -1 2 ] [ 0 ]
`system = (A, b)`
Symbols can always be passed but are actually only needed
when 1) a system of equations is being passed and 2) the
system is passed as an underdetermined matrix and one wants
to control the name of the free variables in the result.
An error is raised if no symbols are used for case 1, but if
no symbols are provided for case 2, internally generated symbols
will be provided. When providing symbols for case 2, there should
be at least as many symbols are there are columns in matrix A.
The algorithm used here is Gauss-Jordan elimination, which
results, after elimination, in a row echelon form matrix.
Returns
=======
A FiniteSet containing an ordered tuple of values for the
unknowns for which the `system` has a solution. (Wrapping
the tuple in FiniteSet is used to maintain a consistent
output format throughout solveset.)
Returns EmptySet(), if the linear system is inconsistent.
Raises
======
ValueError
The input is not valid.
The symbols are not given.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy import Matrix, S, linsolve, symbols
>>> x, y, z = symbols("x, y, z")
>>> A = Matrix([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 10]])
>>> b = Matrix([3, 6, 9])
>>> A
Matrix([
[1, 2, 3],
[4, 5, 6],
[7, 8, 10]])
>>> b
Matrix([
[3],
[6],
[9]])
>>> linsolve((A, b), [x, y, z])
{(-1, 2, 0)}
* Parametric Solution: In case the system is underdetermined, the
function will return a parametric solution in terms of the given
symbols. Those that are free will be returned unchanged. e.g. in
the system below, `z` is returned as the solution for variable z;
it can take on any value.
>>> A = Matrix([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]])
>>> b = Matrix([3, 6, 9])
>>> linsolve((A, b), x, y, z)
{(z - 1, -2*z + 2, z)}
If no symbols are given, internally generated symbols will be used.
The `tau0` in the 3rd position indicates (as before) that the 3rd
variable -- whatever it's named -- can take on any value:
>>> linsolve((A, b))
{(tau0 - 1, -2*tau0 + 2, tau0)}
* List of Equations as input
>>> Eqns = [3*x + 2*y - z - 1, 2*x - 2*y + 4*z + 2, - x + y/2 - z]
>>> linsolve(Eqns, x, y, z)
{(1, -2, -2)}
* Augmented Matrix as input
>>> aug = Matrix([[2, 1, 3, 1], [2, 6, 8, 3], [6, 8, 18, 5]])
>>> aug
Matrix([
[2, 1, 3, 1],
[2, 6, 8, 3],
[6, 8, 18, 5]])
>>> linsolve(aug, x, y, z)
{(3/10, 2/5, 0)}
* Solve for symbolic coefficients
>>> a, b, c, d, e, f = symbols('a, b, c, d, e, f')
>>> eqns = [a*x + b*y - c, d*x + e*y - f]
>>> linsolve(eqns, x, y)
{((-b*f + c*e)/(a*e - b*d), (a*f - c*d)/(a*e - b*d))}
* A degenerate system returns solution as set of given
symbols.
>>> system = Matrix(([0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]))
>>> linsolve(system, x, y)
{(x, y)}
* For an empty system linsolve returns empty set
>>> linsolve([], x)
EmptySet()
* An error is raised if, after expansion, any nonlinearity
is detected:
>>> linsolve([x*(1/x - 1), (y - 1)**2 - y**2 + 1], x, y)
{(1, 1)}
>>> linsolve([x**2 - 1], x)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError:
The term x**2 is nonlinear in {x}
"""
if not system:
return S.EmptySet
# If second argument is an iterable
if symbols and hasattr(symbols[0], '__iter__'):
symbols = symbols[0]
sym_gen = isinstance(symbols, GeneratorType)
swap = {}
b = None # if we don't get b the input was bad
syms_needed_msg = None
# unpack system
if hasattr(system, '__iter__'):
# 1). (A, b)
if len(system) == 2 and isinstance(system[0], Matrix):
A, b = system
# 2). (eq1, eq2, ...)
if not isinstance(system[0], Matrix):
if sym_gen or not symbols:
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
When passing a system of equations, the explicit
symbols for which a solution is being sought must
be given as a sequence, too.
'''))
system = [
_mexpand(i.lhs - i.rhs if isinstance(i, Eq) else i,
recursive=True) for i in system]
system, symbols, swap = recast_to_symbols(system, symbols)
A, b = linear_eq_to_matrix(system, symbols)
syms_needed_msg = 'free symbols in the equations provided'
elif isinstance(system, Matrix) and not (
symbols and not isinstance(symbols, GeneratorType) and
isinstance(symbols[0], Matrix)):
# 3). A augmented with b
A, b = system[:, :-1], system[:, -1:]
if b is None:
raise ValueError("Invalid arguments")
syms_needed_msg = syms_needed_msg or 'columns of A'
if sym_gen:
symbols = [next(symbols) for i in range(A.cols)]
if any(set(symbols) & (A.free_symbols | b.free_symbols)):
raise ValueError(filldedent('''
At least one of the symbols provided
already appears in the system to be solved.
One way to avoid this is to use Dummy symbols in
the generator, e.g. numbered_symbols('%s', cls=Dummy)
''' % symbols[0].name.rstrip('1234567890')))
try:
solution, params, free_syms = A.gauss_jordan_solve(b, freevar=True)
except ValueError:
# No solution
return S.EmptySet
# Replace free parameters with free symbols
if params:
if not symbols:
symbols = [_ for _ in params]
# re-use the parameters but put them in order
# params [x, y, z]
# free_symbols [2, 0, 4]
# idx [1, 0, 2]
idx = list(zip(*sorted(zip(free_syms, range(len(free_syms))))))[1]
# simultaneous replacements {y: x, x: y, z: z}
replace_dict = dict(zip(symbols, [symbols[i] for i in idx]))
elif len(symbols) >= A.cols:
replace_dict = {v: symbols[free_syms[k]] for k, v in enumerate(params)}
else:
raise IndexError(filldedent('''
the number of symbols passed should have a length
equal to the number of %s.
''' % syms_needed_msg))
solution = [sol.xreplace(replace_dict) for sol in solution]
solution = [simplify(sol).xreplace(swap) for sol in solution]
return FiniteSet(tuple(solution))
##############################################################################
# ------------------------------nonlinsolve ---------------------------------#
##############################################################################
def _return_conditionset(eqs, symbols):
# return conditionset
condition_set = ConditionSet(
Tuple(*symbols),
FiniteSet(*eqs),
S.Complexes)
return condition_set
def substitution(system, symbols, result=[{}], known_symbols=[],
exclude=[], all_symbols=None):
r"""
Solves the `system` using substitution method. It is used in
`nonlinsolve`. This will be called from `nonlinsolve` when any
equation(s) is non polynomial equation.
Parameters
==========
system : list of equations
The target system of equations
symbols : list of symbols to be solved.
The variable(s) for which the system is solved
known_symbols : list of solved symbols
Values are known for these variable(s)
result : An empty list or list of dict
If No symbol values is known then empty list otherwise
symbol as keys and corresponding value in dict.
exclude : Set of expression.
Mostly denominator expression(s) of the equations of the system.
Final solution should not satisfy these expressions.
all_symbols : known_symbols + symbols(unsolved).
Returns
=======
A FiniteSet of ordered tuple of values of `all_symbols` for which the
`system` has solution. Order of values in the tuple is same as symbols
present in the parameter `all_symbols`. If parameter `all_symbols` is None
then same as symbols present in the parameter `symbols`.
Please note that general FiniteSet is unordered, the solution returned
here is not simply a FiniteSet of solutions, rather it is a FiniteSet of
ordered tuple, i.e. the first & only argument to FiniteSet is a tuple of
solutions, which is ordered, & hence the returned solution is ordered.
Also note that solution could also have been returned as an ordered tuple,
FiniteSet is just a wrapper `{}` around the tuple. It has no other
significance except for the fact it is just used to maintain a consistent
output format throughout the solveset.
Raises
======
ValueError
The input is not valid.
The symbols are not given.
AttributeError
The input symbols are not `Symbol` type.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.core.symbol import symbols
>>> x, y = symbols('x, y', real=True)
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import substitution
>>> substitution([x + y], [x], [{y: 1}], [y], set([]), [x, y])
{(-1, 1)}
* when you want soln should not satisfy eq `x + 1 = 0`
>>> substitution([x + y], [x], [{y: 1}], [y], set([x + 1]), [y, x])
EmptySet()
>>> substitution([x + y], [x], [{y: 1}], [y], set([x - 1]), [y, x])
{(1, -1)}
>>> substitution([x + y - 1, y - x**2 + 5], [x, y])
{(-3, 4), (2, -1)}
* Returns both real and complex solution
>>> x, y, z = symbols('x, y, z')
>>> from sympy import exp, sin
>>> substitution([exp(x) - sin(y), y**2 - 4], [x, y])
{(log(sin(2)), 2), (ImageSet(Lambda(_n, I*(2*_n*pi + pi) +
log(sin(2))), Integers), -2), (ImageSet(Lambda(_n, 2*_n*I*pi +
Mod(log(sin(2)), 2*I*pi)), Integers), 2)}
>>> eqs = [z**2 + exp(2*x) - sin(y), -3 + exp(-y)]
>>> substitution(eqs, [y, z])
{(-log(3), -sqrt(-exp(2*x) - sin(log(3)))),
(-log(3), sqrt(-exp(2*x) - sin(log(3)))),
(ImageSet(Lambda(_n, 2*_n*I*pi + Mod(-log(3), 2*I*pi)), Integers),
ImageSet(Lambda(_n, -sqrt(-exp(2*x) + sin(2*_n*I*pi +
Mod(-log(3), 2*I*pi)))), Integers)),
(ImageSet(Lambda(_n, 2*_n*I*pi + Mod(-log(3), 2*I*pi)), Integers),
ImageSet(Lambda(_n, sqrt(-exp(2*x) + sin(2*_n*I*pi +
Mod(-log(3), 2*I*pi)))), Integers))}
"""
from sympy import Complement
from sympy.core.compatibility import is_sequence
if not system:
return S.EmptySet
if not symbols:
msg = ('Symbols must be given, for which solution of the '
'system is to be found.')
raise ValueError(filldedent(msg))
if not is_sequence(symbols):
msg = ('symbols should be given as a sequence, e.g. a list.'
'Not type %s: %s')
raise TypeError(filldedent(msg % (type(symbols), symbols)))
try:
sym = symbols[0].is_Symbol
except AttributeError:
sym = False
if not sym:
msg = ('Iterable of symbols must be given as '
'second argument, not type %s: %s')
raise ValueError(filldedent(msg % (type(symbols[0]), symbols[0])))
# By default `all_symbols` will be same as `symbols`
if all_symbols is None:
all_symbols = symbols
old_result = result
# storing complements and intersection for particular symbol
complements = {}
intersections = {}
# when total_solveset_call is equals to total_conditionset
# means solvest fail to solve all the eq.
total_conditionset = -1
total_solveset_call = -1
def _unsolved_syms(eq, sort=False):
"""Returns the unsolved symbol present
in the equation `eq`.
"""
free = eq.free_symbols
unsolved = (free - set(known_symbols)) & set(all_symbols)
if sort:
unsolved = list(unsolved)
unsolved.sort(key=default_sort_key)
return unsolved
# end of _unsolved_syms()
# sort such that equation with the fewest potential symbols is first.
# means eq with less number of variable first in the list.
eqs_in_better_order = list(
ordered(system, lambda _: len(_unsolved_syms(_))))
def add_intersection_complement(result, sym_set, **flags):
# If solveset have returned some intersection/complement
# for any symbol. It will be added in final solution.
final_result = []
for res in result:
res_copy = res
for key_res, value_res in res.items():
# Intersection/complement is in Interval or Set.
intersection_true = flags.get('Intersection', True)
complements_true = flags.get('Complement', True)
for key_sym, value_sym in sym_set.items():
if key_sym == key_res:
if intersection_true:
# testcase is not added for this line(intersection)
new_value = \
Intersection(FiniteSet(value_res), value_sym)
if new_value is not S.EmptySet:
res_copy[key_res] = new_value
if complements_true:
new_value = \
Complement(FiniteSet(value_res), value_sym)
if new_value is not S.EmptySet:
res_copy[key_res] = new_value
final_result.append(res_copy)
return final_result
# end of def add_intersection_complement()
def _extract_main_soln(sol, soln_imageset):
"""separate the Complements, Intersections, ImageSet lambda expr
and it's base_set.
"""
# if there is union, then need to check
# Complement, Intersection, Imageset.
# Order should not be changed.
if isinstance(sol, Complement):
# extract solution and complement
complements[sym] = sol.args[1]
sol = sol.args[0]
# complement will be added at the end
# using `add_intersection_complement` method
if isinstance(sol, Intersection):
# Interval/Set will be at 0th index always
if sol.args[0] != Interval(-oo, oo):
# sometimes solveset returns soln
# with intersection `S.Reals`, to confirm that
# soln is in `domain=S.Reals` or not. We don't consider
# that intersection.
intersections[sym] = sol.args[0]
sol = sol.args[1]
# after intersection and complement Imageset should
# be checked.
if isinstance(sol, ImageSet):
soln_imagest = sol
expr2 = sol.lamda.expr
sol = FiniteSet(expr2)
soln_imageset[expr2] = soln_imagest
# if there is union of Imageset or other in soln.
# no testcase is written for this if block
if isinstance(sol, Union):
sol_args = sol.args
sol = S.EmptySet
# We need in sequence so append finteset elements
# and then imageset or other.
for sol_arg2 in sol_args:
if isinstance(sol_arg2, FiniteSet):
sol += sol_arg2
else:
# ImageSet, Intersection, complement then
# append them directly
sol += FiniteSet(sol_arg2)
if not isinstance(sol, FiniteSet):
sol = FiniteSet(sol)
return sol, soln_imageset
# end of def _extract_main_soln()
# helper function for _append_new_soln
def _check_exclude(rnew, imgset_yes):
rnew_ = rnew
if imgset_yes:
# replace all dummy variables (Imageset lambda variables)
# with zero before `checksol`. Considering fundamental soln
# for `checksol`.
rnew_copy = rnew.copy()
dummy_n = imgset_yes[0]
for key_res, value_res in rnew_copy.items():
rnew_copy[key_res] = value_res.subs(dummy_n, 0)
rnew_ = rnew_copy
# satisfy_exclude == true if it satisfies the expr of `exclude` list.
try:
# something like : `Mod(-log(3), 2*I*pi)` can't be
# simplified right now, so `checksol` returns `TypeError`.
# when this issue is fixed this try block should be
# removed. Mod(-log(3), 2*I*pi) == -log(3)
satisfy_exclude = any(
checksol(d, rnew_) for d in exclude)
except TypeError:
satisfy_exclude = None
return satisfy_exclude
# end of def _check_exclude()
# helper function for _append_new_soln
def _restore_imgset(rnew, original_imageset, newresult):
restore_sym = set(rnew.keys()) & \
set(original_imageset.keys())
for key_sym in restore_sym:
img = original_imageset[key_sym]
rnew[key_sym] = img
if rnew not in newresult:
newresult.append(rnew)
# end of def _restore_imgset()
def _append_eq(eq, result, res, delete_soln, n=None):
u = Dummy('u')
if n:
eq = eq.subs(n, 0)
satisfy = checksol(u, u, eq, minimal=True)
if satisfy is False:
delete_soln = True
res = {}
else:
result.append(res)
return result, res, delete_soln
def _append_new_soln(rnew, sym, sol, imgset_yes, soln_imageset,
original_imageset, newresult, eq=None):
"""If `rnew` (A dict <symbol: soln>) contains valid soln
append it to `newresult` list.
`imgset_yes` is (base, dummy_var) if there was imageset in previously
calculated result(otherwise empty tuple). `original_imageset` is dict
of imageset expr and imageset from this result.
`soln_imageset` dict of imageset expr and imageset of new soln.
"""
satisfy_exclude = _check_exclude(rnew, imgset_yes)
delete_soln = False
# soln should not satisfy expr present in `exclude` list.
if not satisfy_exclude:
local_n = None
# if it is imageset
if imgset_yes:
local_n = imgset_yes[0]
base = imgset_yes[1]
if sym and sol:
# when `sym` and `sol` is `None` means no new
# soln. In that case we will append rnew directly after
# substituting original imagesets in rnew values if present
# (second last line of this function using _restore_imgset)
dummy_list = list(sol.atoms(Dummy))
# use one dummy `n` which is in
# previous imageset
local_n_list = [
local_n for i in range(
0, len(dummy_list))]
dummy_zip = zip(dummy_list, local_n_list)
lam = Lambda(local_n, sol.subs(dummy_zip))
rnew[sym] = ImageSet(lam, base)
if eq is not None:
newresult, rnew, delete_soln = _append_eq(
eq, newresult, rnew, delete_soln, local_n)
elif eq is not None:
newresult, rnew, delete_soln = _append_eq(
eq, newresult, rnew, delete_soln)
elif soln_imageset:
rnew[sym] = soln_imageset[sol]
# restore original imageset
_restore_imgset(rnew, original_imageset, newresult)
else:
newresult.append(rnew)
elif satisfy_exclude:
delete_soln = True
rnew = {}
_restore_imgset(rnew, original_imageset, newresult)
return newresult, delete_soln
# end of def _append_new_soln()
def _new_order_result(result, eq):
# separate first, second priority. `res` that makes `eq` value equals
# to zero, should be used first then other result(second priority).
# If it is not done then we may miss some soln.
first_priority = []
second_priority = []
for res in result:
if not any(isinstance(val, ImageSet) for val in res.values()):
if eq.subs(res) == 0:
first_priority.append(res)
else:
second_priority.append(res)
if first_priority or second_priority:
return first_priority + second_priority
return result
def _solve_using_known_values(result, solver):
"""Solves the system using already known solution
(result contains the dict <symbol: value>).
solver is `solveset_complex` or `solveset_real`.
"""
# stores imageset <expr: imageset(Lambda(n, expr), base)>.
soln_imageset = {}
total_solvest_call = 0
total_conditionst = 0
# sort such that equation with the fewest potential symbols is first.
# means eq with less variable first
for index, eq in enumerate(eqs_in_better_order):
newresult = []
original_imageset = {}
# if imageset expr is used to solve other symbol
imgset_yes = False
result = _new_order_result(result, eq)
for res in result:
got_symbol = set() # symbols solved in one iteration
if soln_imageset:
# find the imageset and use its expr.
for key_res, value_res in res.items():
if isinstance(value_res, ImageSet):
res[key_res] = value_res.lamda.expr
original_imageset[key_res] = value_res
dummy_n = value_res.lamda.expr.atoms(Dummy).pop()
base = value_res.base_set
imgset_yes = (dummy_n, base)
# update eq with everything that is known so far
eq2 = eq.subs(res)
unsolved_syms = _unsolved_syms(eq2, sort=True)
if not unsolved_syms:
if res:
newresult, delete_res = _append_new_soln(
res, None, None, imgset_yes, soln_imageset,
original_imageset, newresult, eq2)
if delete_res:
# `delete_res` is true, means substituting `res` in
# eq2 doesn't return `zero` or deleting the `res`
# (a soln) since it staisfies expr of `exclude`
# list.
result.remove(res)
continue # skip as it's independent of desired symbols
depen = eq2.as_independent(unsolved_syms)[0]
if depen.has(Abs) and solver == solveset_complex:
# Absolute values cannot be inverted in the
# complex domain
continue
soln_imageset = {}
for sym in unsolved_syms:
not_solvable = False
try:
soln = solver(eq2, sym)
total_solvest_call += 1
soln_new = S.EmptySet
if isinstance(soln, Complement):
# separate solution and complement
complements[sym] = soln.args[1]
soln = soln.args[0]
# complement will be added at the end
if isinstance(soln, Intersection):
# Interval will be at 0th index always
if soln.args[0] != Interval(-oo, oo):
# sometimes solveset returns soln
# with intersection S.Reals, to confirm that
# soln is in domain=S.Reals
intersections[sym] = soln.args[0]
soln_new += soln.args[1]
soln = soln_new if soln_new else soln
if index > 0 and solver == solveset_real:
# one symbol's real soln , another symbol may have
# corresponding complex soln.
if not isinstance(soln, (ImageSet, ConditionSet)):
soln += solveset_complex(eq2, sym)
except NotImplementedError:
# If sovleset is not able to solve equation `eq2`. Next
# time we may get soln using next equation `eq2`
continue
if isinstance(soln, ConditionSet):
soln = S.EmptySet
# don't do `continue` we may get soln
# in terms of other symbol(s)
not_solvable = True
total_conditionst += 1
if soln is not S.EmptySet:
soln, soln_imageset = _extract_main_soln(
soln, soln_imageset)
for sol in soln:
# sol is not a `Union` since we checked it
# before this loop
sol, soln_imageset = _extract_main_soln(
sol, soln_imageset)
sol = set(sol).pop()
free = sol.free_symbols
if got_symbol and any([
ss in free for ss in got_symbol
]):
# sol depends on previously solved symbols
# then continue
continue
rnew = res.copy()
# put each solution in res and append the new result
# in the new result list (solution for symbol `s`)
# along with old results.
for k, v in res.items():
if isinstance(v, Expr):
# if any unsolved symbol is present
# Then subs known value
rnew[k] = v.subs(sym, sol)
# and add this new solution
if soln_imageset:
# replace all lambda variables with 0.
imgst = soln_imageset[sol]
rnew[sym] = imgst.lamda(
*[0 for i in range(0, len(
imgst.lamda.variables))])
else:
rnew[sym] = sol
newresult, delete_res = _append_new_soln(
rnew, sym, sol, imgset_yes, soln_imageset,
original_imageset, newresult)
if delete_res:
# deleting the `res` (a soln) since it staisfies
# eq of `exclude` list
result.remove(res)
# solution got for sym
if not not_solvable:
got_symbol.add(sym)
# next time use this new soln
if newresult:
result = newresult
return result, total_solvest_call, total_conditionst
# end def _solve_using_know_values()
new_result_real, solve_call1, cnd_call1 = _solve_using_known_values(
old_result, solveset_real)
new_result_complex, solve_call2, cnd_call2 = _solve_using_known_values(
old_result, solveset_complex)
# when `total_solveset_call` is equals to `total_conditionset`
# means solvest fails to solve all the eq.
# return conditionset in this case
total_conditionset += (cnd_call1 + cnd_call2)
total_solveset_call += (solve_call1 + solve_call2)
if total_conditionset == total_solveset_call and total_solveset_call != -1:
return _return_conditionset(eqs_in_better_order, all_symbols)
# overall result
result = new_result_real + new_result_complex
result_all_variables = []
result_infinite = []
for res in result:
if not res:
# means {None : None}
continue
# If length < len(all_symbols) means infinite soln.
# Some or all the soln is dependent on 1 symbol.
# eg. {x: y+2} then final soln {x: y+2, y: y}
if len(res) < len(all_symbols):
solved_symbols = res.keys()
unsolved = list(filter(
lambda x: x not in solved_symbols, all_symbols))
for unsolved_sym in unsolved:
res[unsolved_sym] = unsolved_sym
result_infinite.append(res)
if res not in result_all_variables:
result_all_variables.append(res)
if result_infinite:
# we have general soln
# eg : [{x: -1, y : 1}, {x : -y , y: y}] then
# return [{x : -y, y : y}]
result_all_variables = result_infinite
if intersections and complements:
# no testcase is added for this block
result_all_variables = add_intersection_complement(
result_all_variables, intersections,
Intersection=True, Complement=True)
elif intersections:
result_all_variables = add_intersection_complement(
result_all_variables, intersections, Intersection=True)
elif complements:
result_all_variables = add_intersection_complement(
result_all_variables, complements, Complement=True)
# convert to ordered tuple
result = S.EmptySet
for r in result_all_variables:
temp = [r[symb] for symb in all_symbols]
result += FiniteSet(tuple(temp))
return result
# end of def substitution()
def _solveset_work(system, symbols):
soln = solveset(system[0], symbols[0])
if isinstance(soln, FiniteSet):
_soln = FiniteSet(*[tuple((s,)) for s in soln])
return _soln
else:
return FiniteSet(tuple(FiniteSet(soln)))
def _handle_positive_dimensional(polys, symbols, denominators):
from sympy.polys.polytools import groebner
# substitution method where new system is groebner basis of the system
_symbols = list(symbols)
_symbols.sort(key=default_sort_key)
basis = groebner(polys, _symbols, polys=True)
new_system = []
for poly_eq in basis:
new_system.append(poly_eq.as_expr())
result = [{}]
result = substitution(
new_system, symbols, result, [],
denominators)
return result
# end of def _handle_positive_dimensional()
def _handle_zero_dimensional(polys, symbols, system):
# solve 0 dimensional poly system using `solve_poly_system`
result = solve_poly_system(polys, *symbols)
# May be some extra soln is added because
# we used `unrad` in `_separate_poly_nonpoly`, so
# need to check and remove if it is not a soln.
result_update = S.EmptySet
for res in result:
dict_sym_value = dict(list(zip(symbols, res)))
if all(checksol(eq, dict_sym_value) for eq in system):
result_update += FiniteSet(res)
return result_update
# end of def _handle_zero_dimensional()
def _separate_poly_nonpoly(system, symbols):
polys = []
polys_expr = []
nonpolys = []
denominators = set()
poly = None
for eq in system:
# Store denom expression if it contains symbol
denominators.update(_simple_dens(eq, symbols))
# try to remove sqrt and rational power
without_radicals = unrad(simplify(eq))
if without_radicals:
eq_unrad, cov = without_radicals
if not cov:
eq = eq_unrad
if isinstance(eq, Expr):
eq = eq.as_numer_denom()[0]
poly = eq.as_poly(*symbols, extension=True)
elif simplify(eq).is_number:
continue
if poly is not None:
polys.append(poly)
polys_expr.append(poly.as_expr())
else:
nonpolys.append(eq)
return polys, polys_expr, nonpolys, denominators
# end of def _separate_poly_nonpoly()
[docs]def nonlinsolve(system, *symbols):
r"""
Solve system of N non linear equations with M variables, which means both
under and overdetermined systems are supported. Positive dimensional
system is also supported (A system with infinitely many solutions is said
to be positive-dimensional). In Positive dimensional system solution will
be dependent on at least one symbol. Returns both real solution
and complex solution(If system have). The possible number of solutions
is zero, one or infinite.
Parameters
==========
system : list of equations
The target system of equations
symbols : list of Symbols
symbols should be given as a sequence eg. list
Returns
=======
A FiniteSet of ordered tuple of values of `symbols` for which the `system`
has solution. Order of values in the tuple is same as symbols present in
the parameter `symbols`.
Please note that general FiniteSet is unordered, the solution returned
here is not simply a FiniteSet of solutions, rather it is a FiniteSet of
ordered tuple, i.e. the first & only argument to FiniteSet is a tuple of
solutions, which is ordered, & hence the returned solution is ordered.
Also note that solution could also have been returned as an ordered tuple,
FiniteSet is just a wrapper `{}` around the tuple. It has no other
significance except for the fact it is just used to maintain a consistent
output format throughout the solveset.
For the given set of Equations, the respective input types
are given below:
.. math:: x*y - 1 = 0
.. math:: 4*x**2 + y**2 - 5 = 0
`system = [x*y - 1, 4*x**2 + y**2 - 5]`
`symbols = [x, y]`
Raises
======
ValueError
The input is not valid.
The symbols are not given.
AttributeError
The input symbols are not `Symbol` type.
Examples
========
>>> from sympy.core.symbol import symbols
>>> from sympy.solvers.solveset import nonlinsolve
>>> x, y, z = symbols('x, y, z', real=True)
>>> nonlinsolve([x*y - 1, 4*x**2 + y**2 - 5], [x, y])
{(-1, -1), (-1/2, -2), (1/2, 2), (1, 1)}
1. Positive dimensional system and complements:
>>> from sympy import pprint
>>> from sympy.polys.polytools import is_zero_dimensional
>>> a, b, c, d = symbols('a, b, c, d', real=True)
>>> eq1 = a + b + c + d
>>> eq2 = a*b + b*c + c*d + d*a
>>> eq3 = a*b*c + b*c*d + c*d*a + d*a*b
>>> eq4 = a*b*c*d - 1
>>> system = [eq1, eq2, eq3, eq4]
>>> is_zero_dimensional(system)
False
>>> pprint(nonlinsolve(system, [a, b, c, d]), use_unicode=False)
-1 1 1 -1
{(---, -d, -, {d} \ {0}), (-, -d, ---, {d} \ {0})}
d d d d
>>> nonlinsolve([(x+y)**2 - 4, x + y - 2], [x, y])
{(-y + 2, y)}
2. If some of the equations are non polynomial equation then `nonlinsolve`
will call `substitution` function and returns real and complex solutions,
if present.
>>> from sympy import exp, sin
>>> nonlinsolve([exp(x) - sin(y), y**2 - 4], [x, y])
{(log(sin(2)), 2), (ImageSet(Lambda(_n, I*(2*_n*pi + pi) +
log(sin(2))), Integers), -2), (ImageSet(Lambda(_n, 2*_n*I*pi +
Mod(log(sin(2)), 2*I*pi)), Integers), 2)}
3. If system is Non linear polynomial zero dimensional then it returns
both solution (real and complex solutions, if present using
`solve_poly_system`):
>>> from sympy import sqrt
>>> nonlinsolve([x**2 - 2*y**2 -2, x*y - 2], [x, y])
{(-2, -1), (2, 1), (-sqrt(2)*I, sqrt(2)*I), (sqrt(2)*I, -sqrt(2)*I)}
4. `nonlinsolve` can solve some linear(zero or positive dimensional)
system (because it is using `groebner` function to get the
groebner basis and then `substitution` function basis as the new `system`).
But it is not recommended to solve linear system using `nonlinsolve`,
because `linsolve` is better for all kind of linear system.
>>> nonlinsolve([x + 2*y -z - 3, x - y - 4*z + 9 , y + z - 4], [x, y, z])
{(3*z - 5, -z + 4, z)}
5. System having polynomial equations and only real solution is present
(will be solved using `solve_poly_system`):
>>> e1 = sqrt(x**2 + y**2) - 10
>>> e2 = sqrt(y**2 + (-x + 10)**2) - 3
>>> nonlinsolve((e1, e2), (x, y))
{(191/20, -3*sqrt(391)/20), (191/20, 3*sqrt(391)/20)}
>>> nonlinsolve([x**2 + 2/y - 2, x + y - 3], [x, y])
{(1, 2), (1 + sqrt(5), -sqrt(5) + 2), (-sqrt(5) + 1, 2 + sqrt(5))}
>>> nonlinsolve([x**2 + 2/y - 2, x + y - 3], [y, x])
{(2, 1), (2 + sqrt(5), -sqrt(5) + 1), (-sqrt(5) + 2, 1 + sqrt(5))}
6. It is better to use symbols instead of Trigonometric Function or
Function (e.g. replace `sin(x)` with symbol, replace `f(x)` with symbol
and so on. Get soln from `nonlinsolve` and then using `solveset` get
the value of `x`)
How nonlinsolve is better than old solver `_solve_system` :
===========================================================
1. A positive dimensional system solver : nonlinsolve can return
solution for positive dimensional system. It finds the
Groebner Basis of the positive dimensional system(calling it as
basis) then we can start solving equation(having least number of
variable first in the basis) using solveset and substituting that
solved solutions into other equation(of basis) to get solution in
terms of minimum variables. Here the important thing is how we
are substituting the known values and in which equations.
2. Real and Complex both solutions : nonlinsolve returns both real
and complex solution. If all the equations in the system are polynomial
then using `solve_poly_system` both real and complex solution is returned.
If all the equations in the system are not polynomial equation then goes to
`substitution` method with this polynomial and non polynomial equation(s),
to solve for unsolved variables. Here to solve for particular variable
solveset_real and solveset_complex is used. For both real and complex
solution function `_solve_using_know_values` is used inside `substitution`
function.(`substitution` function will be called when there is any non
polynomial equation(s) is present). When solution is valid then add its
general solution in the final result.
3. Complement and Intersection will be added if any : nonlinsolve maintains
dict for complements and Intersections. If solveset find complements or/and
Intersection with any Interval or set during the execution of
`substitution` function ,then complement or/and Intersection for that
variable is added before returning final solution.
"""
from sympy.polys.polytools import is_zero_dimensional
if not system:
return S.EmptySet
if not symbols:
msg = ('Symbols must be given, for which solution of the '
'system is to be found.')
raise ValueError(filldedent(msg))
if hasattr(symbols[0], '__iter__'):
symbols = symbols[0]
if not is_sequence(symbols) or not symbols:
msg = ('Symbols must be given, for which solution of the '
'system is to be found.')
raise IndexError(filldedent(msg))
system, symbols, swap = recast_to_symbols(system, symbols)
if swap:
soln = nonlinsolve(system, symbols)
return FiniteSet(*[tuple(i.xreplace(swap) for i in s) for s in soln])
if len(system) == 1 and len(symbols) == 1:
return _solveset_work(system, symbols)
# main code of def nonlinsolve() starts from here
polys, polys_expr, nonpolys, denominators = _separate_poly_nonpoly(
system, symbols)
if len(symbols) == len(polys):
# If all the equations in the system are poly
if is_zero_dimensional(polys, symbols):
# finite number of soln (Zero dimensional system)
try:
return _handle_zero_dimensional(polys, symbols, system)
except NotImplementedError:
# Right now it doesn't fail for any polynomial system of
# equation. If `solve_poly_system` fails then `substitution`
# method will handle it.
result = substitution(
polys_expr, symbols, exclude=denominators)
return result
# positive dimensional system
return _handle_positive_dimensional(polys, symbols, denominators)
else:
# If all the equations are not polynomial.
# Use `substitution` method for the system
result = substitution(
polys_expr + nonpolys, symbols, exclude=denominators)
return result
```