SymPy Documentation Style Guide

A Writing Resource for Documentation and Docstrings

General Guidelines

Documentation is one of the most highly valued aspects of an open source project. Documentation teaches users and contributors how to use a project, how to contribute, and the standards of conduct within an open source community. But according to GitHub’s Open Source Survey, incomplete or confusing documentation is the most commonly encountered problem in open source. This style guide aims to change that.

The purpose of this style guide is to provide the SymPy community with a set of style and formatting guidelines that can be utilized and followed when writing SymPy documentation. Adhering to the guidelines offered in this style guide will bring greater consistency and clarity to SymPy’s documentation, supporting its mission to become a full-featured, open source computer algebra system (CAS).

The SymPy documentation found at is generated from docstrings in the source code and dedicated narrative documentation files in the doc/src directory. Both are written in reStructuredText format extended by Sphinx.

The documentation contained in the doc/src directory and the docstrings embedded in the Python source code are processed by Sphinx and various Sphinx extensions. This means that the documentation source format is specified by the documentation processing tools. The SymPy Documentation Style Guide provides both the essential elements for writing SymPy documentation as well as any deviations in style we specify relative to these documentation processing tools. The following lists the processing tools:

Everything supported by the above processing tools is available for use in the SymPy documentation, but this style guide supersedes any recommendations made in the above documents. Note that we do not follow PEP 257 or the documentation recommendations.

If you are contributing to SymPy for the first time, please read our Introduction to Contributing page as well as this guide.

Types of Documentation

There are four main locations where SymPy’s documentation can be found:

SymPy Website

The SymPy website’s primary function is to advertise the software to users and developers. It also serves as an initial location to point viewers to other relevant resources on the web. The SymPy website has basic information on SymPy and how to obtain it, as well as examples to advertise it to users, but it does not have technical documentation. The source files are located in the SymPy webpage directory. Appropriate items for the website are:

  • General descriptions of what SymPy and the SymPy community are

  • Explanations/demonstrations of major software features

  • Listings of other major software that uses SymPy

  • Getting started info for users (download and install instructions)

  • Getting started info for developers

  • Where users can get help and support on using SymPy

  • News about SymPy

SymPy Documentation

This is the main place where users go to learn how to use SymPy. It contains a tutorial for SymPy as well as technical documentation for all of the modules. The source files are hosted in the main SymPy repository in the doc directory at and are built using the Sphinx site generator and uploaded to the site automatically. The docs website also contains a built- in shell (SymPy Live) that allows users to interactively execute examples. There are two primary types of pages that are generated from different source files in the docs directory:

  • Narrative Pages: reStructuredText files that correspond to manually written documentation pages not present in the Python source code. Examples are the tutorial RST files. In general, if your documentation is not API documentation it belongs in a narrative page.

  • API Documentation Pages: reStructuredText files that contain directives that generate the Application Programming Interface documentation. These are automatically generated from the SymPy Python source code.

SymPy Source Code

Most functions and classes have documentation written inside it in the form of a docstring, which explains the function and includes examples called doctests. The purpose of these docstrings are to explain the API of that class or function. The doctests examples are tested as part of the test suite, so that we know that they always produce the output that they say that they do. Here is an example docstring. Most docstrings are also automatically included in the Sphinx documentation above, so that they appear on the SymPy Documentation website. Here is that same docstring on the SymPy website. The docstrings are formatted in a specific way so that Sphinx can render them correctly for the docs website. The SymPy sources all contain sparse technical documentation in the form of source code comments, although this does not generally constitute anything substantial and is not displayed on the documentation website.

SymPy Wiki

The SymPy Wiki can be edited by anyone without review. It contains various types of documentation, including:

Getting Started

The first step to contributing to the code base is creating your development environment. Please find instructions on how to create your development environment in our Development Workflow – Create Your Environment guide.

Once you have created your development environment, follow these steps:

1. Installation


For Debian/Ubuntu, install the prerequisites:

apt-get install python3-sphinx texlive-latex-recommended dvipng librsvg2-bin imagemagick docbook2x graphviz
python -m pip install sphinx-math-dollar

And do:

make html

If you get mpmath error, install python-mpmath package:

apt-get install python-mpmath

If you get matplotlib error, install python-matplotlib package:

apt-get install python-matplotlib

And to view it, do:

firefox _build/html/index.html


For Fedora (and maybe other RPM-based distributions), install the prerequisites:

dnf install python3-sphinx librsvg2 ImageMagick docbook2X texlive-dvipng-bin
texlive-scheme-medium librsvg2-tools
python -m pip install sphinx-math-dollar

After that, run:

make html

If you get mpmath error, install python3-mpmath package:

dnf install python3-mpmath

If you get matplotlib error, install python3-matplotlib package:

dnf install python3-matplotlib

And view it at:



For Mac, first install homebrew:

Then install these packages with homebrew:

brew install imagemagick graphviz docbook librsvg

Install these packages with either pip or conda:

python -m pip install mpmath matplotlib sphinx sphinx-math-dollar


conda install -c conda-forge mpmath matplotlib sphinx sphinx-math-dollar

Windows 10

Making your Sphinx build successful on the Windows system is tricky because some dependencies like dvipng or docbook2x are not available.

For Windows 10, however, the Windows Subsystem for Linux can be a possible workaround solution, and you can install Ubuntu shell on your Windows system after following the tutorial below:

In your command prompt, run ubuntu to transfer to Linux terminal, and follow the Debian/Ubuntu tutorial above to install the dependencies, and then you can run make html to build. (Note that you also have to install make via apt-get install make.)

If you want to change the directory in your prompt to your working folder of SymPy in the Windows file system, you can prepend cd /mnt/ to your file path in Windows, and run in your shell to navigate to the folder. (Also note that Linux uses / instead of \ for file paths.)

This method provides better compatibility than Cygwin or MSYS2 and more convenience than a virtual machine if you partially need a Linux environment for your workflow, however this method is only viable for Windows 10 64-bit users.

2. Build the Documentation

The documentation can be built by running the makefile in the doc subdirectory.

To start, in your preferred web browser, use the drop down menu and select “open file” to navigate into the sympy/doc folder saved on your computer. In the doc folder, select the _build folder, then the html folder, and in the html folder, open the index.html file.

To build the HTML documentation, run:

cd doc

make html

This builds a local version of the documentation in doc/_build/html in your web browser.

Open _build/html/index.html.

3. Make a Contribution

For in-depth instructions on how to contribute to SymPy’s code base including coding conventions, creating your environment, picking an issue to fix, and opening a pull request, please read our full Development Workflow guide.

Narrative Documentation Guidelines

Extensive documentation, or documentation that is not centered around an API reference, should be written as a narrative document in the Sphinx docs (located in the doc/src directory). The narrative documents do not reside in the Python source files, but as standalone restructured files in the doc/src directory. SymPy’s narrative documentation is defined as the collective documents, tutorials, and guides that teach users how to use SymPy. Reference documentation should go in the docstrings and be pulled into the RST with autodoc. The RST itself should only have narrative style documentation that is not a reference for a single specific function.

Best Practices for Writing Documentation

Please follow these formatting, style, and tone preferences when writing documentation.

Formatting Preferences

In order for math and code to render correctly on the SymPy website, please follow these formatting guidelines.


Text that is surrounded by dollar signs $ _ $ will be rendered as LaTeX math. Any text that is meant to appear as LaTeX math should be written as $math$. In the HTML version of the docs, MathJax will render the math.


The Bessel $J$ function of order $\nu$ is defined to be the function
satisfying Bessel’s differential equation.
LaTeX Recommendations
  • If a docstring has any LaTeX, be sure to make it “raw.” See the Docstring Formatting section for details.

  • If you are not sure how to render something, you can use the SymPy latex() function. But be sure to strip out the unimportant parts (the bullet points below).

  • Avoid unnecessary \left and \right (but be sure to use them when they are required).

  • Avoid unnecessary {}. (For example, write x^2 instead of x^{2}.)

  • Use whitespace in a way that makes the equation easiest to read.

  • Always check the final rendering to make sure it looks the way you expect it to.



\int \sin(x)\,dx


\int \sin{\left( x\right)}\, dx

For more in-depth resources on how to write math in LaTeX, see:


Text that should be printed verbatim, such as code, should be surrounded by a set of double backticks like this.


To use this class, define the ``_rewrite()`` and ``_expand()`` methods.

Sometimes a variable will be the same in both math and code, and can even appear in the same paragraph, making it difficult to know if it should be formatted as math or code. If the sentence in question is discussing mathematics, then LaTeX should be used, but if the sentence is discussing the SymPy implementation specifically, then code should be used.

In general, the rule of thumb is to consider if the variable in question were something that rendered differently in code and in math. For example, the Greek letter α would be written as alpha in code and $\alpha$ in LaTeX. The reason being that $\alpha$ cannot be used in contexts referring to Python code because it is not valid Python, and conversely alpha would be incorrect in a math context because it does not render as the Greek letter (α).


class loggamma(Function):
    The ``loggamma`` function implements the logarithm of the gamma
    function (i.e, $\log\Gamma(x)$).


Variables listed in the parameters after the function name should, in written text, be italicized using Sphinx emphasis with asterisks like *this*.


def stirling(n, k, d=None, kind=2, signed=False):

    The first kind of Stirling number counts the number of permutations of
    *n* distinct items that have *k* cycles; the second kind counts the
    ways in which *n* distinct items can be partitioned into *k* parts.
    If *d* is given, the "reduced Stirling number of the second kind" is
    returned: $S^{d}(n, k) = S(n - d + 1, k - d + 1)$ with $n \ge k \ge d$.
    This counts the ways to partition $n$ consecutive integers into $k$
    groups with no pairwise difference less than $d$.


Note that in the above example, the first instances of n and k are referring to the input parameters of the function stirling. Because they are Python variables but also parameters listed by themselves, they are formatted as parameters in italics. The last instances of \(n\) and \(k\) are talking about mathematical expressions, so they are formatted as math.

If a variable is code, but is also a parameter written by itself, the parameter formatting takes precedence and it should be rendered in italics. However, if a parameter appears in a larger code expression it should be within double backticks to be rendered as code. If a variable is only code and not a parameter as well, it should be in double backticks to be rendered as code.

Please note that references to other functions in SymPy are handled differently from parameters or code. If something is referencing another function in SymPy, the cross-reference reStructuredText syntax should be used. See the section on Cross-Referencing for more information.


Section headings in reStructuredText files are created by underlining (and optionally overlining) the section title with a punctuation character at least as long as the text.

Normally, there are no heading levels assigned to certain characters as the structure is determined from the succession of headings. However, for SymPy’s documentation, here is a suggested convention:

=== with overline: title (top level heading)

=== heading 1

--- heading 2

^^^ heading 3

~~~ heading 4

""" heading 5

Style Preferences

Spelling and Punctuation

All narrative writing in SymPy follows American spelling and punctuation standards. For example, “color” is preferred over “colour” and commas should be placed inside of quotation marks.


If the ``line_color`` aesthetic is a function of arity 1, then the coloring
is a function of the x value of a point.

The term "unrestricted necklace," or "bracelet," is used to imply an object
that can be turned over or a sequence that can be reversed.

If there is any ambiguity about the spelling of a word, such as in the case of a function named after a person, refer to the spelling of the actual SymPy function.

For example, Chebyshev polynomials are named after Pafnuty Lvovich Tchebychev, whose name is sometimes transliterated from Russian to be spelled with a “T,” but in SymPy it should always be spelled “Chebyshev” to refer to the SymPy function.


class chebyshevt(OrthogonalPolynomial):
    Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind, $T_n(x)$


Title case capitalization is preferred in all SymPy headings.


What is Symbolic Computation?

Tone Preferences

Across SymPy documentation, please write in:

  • The present tense (e.g., In the following section, we are going to learn…)

  • The first-person inclusive plural (e.g., We did this the long way, but now we can try it the short way…)

  • Use the generic pronoun “you” instead of “one.” Or use “the reader” or “the user.” (e.g., You can access this function by… The user can then access this function by…)

  • Use the gender-neutral pronoun “they” instead of “he” or “she.” (e.g., A good docstring tells the user exactly what they need to know.)

Avoid extraneous or belittling words such as “obviously,” “easily,” “simply,” “just,” or “straightforward.”

Avoid unwelcoming or judgement-based phrases like “That is wrong.” Instead use friendly and inclusive language like “A common mistake is…”

Avoid extraneous phrases like, “we just have to do one more thing.”

Docstring Guidelines

To contribute to SymPy’s docstrings, please read these guidelines in full.

A documentation string (docstring) is a string literal that occurs as the first statement in a module, function, class, or method definition. Such a docstring becomes the __doc__ special attribute of that object.


Here is a basic docstring:

def fdiff(self, argindex=1):
    Returns the first derivative of a Heaviside Function.


    >>> from sympy import Heaviside, diff
    >>> from import x

    >>> Heaviside(x).fdiff()

    >>> Heaviside(x**2 - 1).fdiff()
    DiracDelta(x**2 - 1)

    >>> diff(Heaviside(x)).fdiff()
    DiracDelta(x, 1)


Every public function, class, method, and module should have a docstring that describes what it does. Documentation that is specific to a function or class in the module should be in the docstring of that function or class. The module level docstring should discuss the purpose and scope of the module, and give a high-level example of how to use the functions or classes in the module. A module docstring is the docstring at the very top of the file, for example, the docstring for solvers.ode.

A public function is one that is intended to be used by the end- user, or the public. Documentation is important for public functions because they will be seen and used by many people.

A private function, on the other hand, is one that is only intended to be used in the code in SymPy itself. Although it is less important to document private functions, it also helps to have docstrings on private functions to help other SymPy developers understand how to use the function.

It may not always be clear what is a public function and what is a private function. If a function begins with an underscore, it is private, and if a function is included in it is public, but the converse is not always true, so sometimes you have to decide based on context. In general, if you are unsure, having documentation on a function is better than not having documentation, regardless if it is public or private.

Docstrings should contain information aimed at users of the function. Comments specific to the code or other notes that would only distract users should go in comments in the code, not in docstrings.

Every docstring should have examples that show how the function works. Examples are the most important part of a docstring. A single example showing input and output to a function can be more helpful than a paragraph of descriptive text.

Remember that the primary consumers of docstrings are other human beings, not machines, so it is important to describe what the function does in plain English. Likewise, examples of how to use the function should be designed for human readers, not just for the doctest machinery.

Keep in mind that while Sphinx is the primary way users consume docstrings, and therefore the first platform to keep in mind while writing docstrings (especially for public functions), it is not the only way users consume docstrings. You can also view docstrings using help() or ? in IPython. When using help(), for instance, it will show you all of the docstrings on private methods. Additionally, anyone reading the source code directly will see every docstring.

All public functions, classes, and methods and their corresponding docstrings should be imported into the Sphinx docs, instructions on which can be found at the end of this guide.

Docstring Formatting

Docstrings are are written in reStructuredText format extended by Sphinx. Here is a concise guide to Quick reStructuredText. More in-depth information about using reStructuredText can be found in the Sphinx Documentation.

In order for Sphinx to render docstrings nicely in the HTML documentation, some formatting guidelines should be followed when writing docstrings:

  • Always use “””triple double quotes””” around docstrings. Use r”””raw triple double quotes””” if you use any backslashes in your docstrings.

  • Include a blank line before the docstring’s closing quotes.

  • Lines should not be longer than 80 characters.

  • Always write class-level docstrings under the class definition line, as that is better to read in the source code.

  • The various methods on the class can be mentioned in the docstring or examples if they are important, but details on them should go in the docstring for the method itself.

  • Be aware that :: creates code blocks, which are rarely used in the docstrings. Any code example with example Python should be put in a doctest. Always check that the final version as rendered by Sphinx looks correct in the HTML.

  • In order to make section underlining work nicely in docstrings, numpydoc Sphinx extension is used.

  • Always double check that you have formatted your docstring correctly:

  1. Make sure that your docstring is imported into Sphinx.

  2. Build the Sphinx docs (cd doc; make html).

  3. Make sure that Sphinx doesn’t output any errors.

  4. Open the page in _build/html and make sure that it is formatted correctly.

Docstring Sections

In SymPy’s docstrings, it is preferred that function, class, and method docstrings consist of the following sections in this order:

  1. Single-Sentence Summary

  2. Explanation

  3. Examples

  4. Parameters

  5. See Also

  6. References

The Single-Sentence Summary and Examples sections are required for every docstring. Docstrings will not pass review if these sections are not included.

Do not change the names of these supported sections, for example, the heading “Examples” as a plural should be used even if there is only one example.

SymPy will continue to support all of the section headings listed in the NumPy Docstring Guide.

Headings should be underlined with the same length in equals signs.

If a section is not required and that information for the function in question is unnecessary, do not use it. Unnecessary sections and cluttered docstrings can make a function harder to understand. Aim for the minimal amount of information required to understand the function.

1. Single-Sentence Summary

This section is required for every docstring. A docstring will not pass review if it is not included. No heading is necessary for this section.

This section consists of a one-line sentence ending in a period that describes the function, class, or method’s effect.

Deprecation warnings should go directly after the Single-Sentence Summary, so as to notify users right away. Deprecation warnings should be written as a note in the Sphinx directive:

.. note:: Deprecated in Sympy 0.7.1.

2. Explanation Section

This section is encouraged. If you choose to include an Explanation section in your docstring, it should be labeled with the heading “Explanation” underlined with the same length in equals signs.


This section consists of a more elaborate description of what the function, class, or method does when the concise Single-Sentence Summary will not suffice. This section should be used to clarify functionality in several sentences or paragraphs.

3. Examples Section

This section is required for every docstring. A docstring will not pass review if it is not included. It should be labeled with the heading “Examples” (even if there is only one example) underlined with the same length in equals signs.


This section consists of examples that show how the function works, called doctests. Doctests should be complicated enough that they fully demonstrate the API and functionality of the function, but simple enough that a user can understand them without too much thought. The perfect doctest tells the user exactly what they need to know about the function without reading any other part of the docstring.

There should always be a blank line before the doctest. When multiple examples are provided, they should be separated by blank lines. Comments explaining the examples should have blank lines both above and below them.

Do not think of doctests as tests. Think of them as examples that happen to be tested. They should demonstrate the API of the function to the user (i.e., what the input parameters look like, what the output looks like, and what it does). If you only want to test something, add a test to the relevant test_*.py file.

You can use the ./bin/ script to test the doctest coverage of a file or module. Run the doctests with ./bin/doctest.

You should only skip the testing of an example if it is impossible to test it. If necessary, testing of an example can be skipped by adding a special comment.


>>> import random
>>> random.random()      

If an example is longer than 80 characters, it should be line wrapped. Examples should be line wrapped so that they are still valid Python code, using ... continuation as in a Python prompt. For example, from the ODE module documentation:


>>> from sympy import Function, dsolve, cos, sin
>>> from import x
>>> f = Function('f')
>>> dsolve(cos(f(x)) - (x*sin(f(x)) - f(x)**2)*f(x).diff(x),
... f(x), hint='1st_exact')
Eq(x*cos(f(x)) + f(x)**3/3, C1)

Here dsolve(cos(f(x)) - (x*sin(f(x)) - f(x)**2)*f(x).diff(x), f(x), hint='1st_exact') is too long, so we line break it after a comma so that it is readable, and put ... on the continuation lines. If this is not done correctly, the doctests will fail.

The output of a command can also be line wrapped. No ... should be used in this case. The doctester automatically accepts output that is line wrapped.


>>> list(range(30))
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29]

In a doctest, write imports like sympy import ... instead of import sympy or from sympy import *. To define symbols, use from import x, unless the name is not in (for instance, if it has assumptions), in which case use symbols like x, y = symbols('x y').

In general, you should run ./bin/doctest to make sure your examples run correctly, and fix them if they do not.

4. Parameters Section

This section is encouraged. If you choose to include a Parameters section in your docstring, it should be labeled with the heading “Parameters” underlined with the same length in equals signs.


If you have parameters listed in parentheses after a function, class, or method name, you must include a parameters section.

This section consists of descriptions of the function arguments, keywords, and their respective types.

Enclose variables in double backticks. The colon must be preceded by a space, or omitted if the type is absent. For the parameter types, be as precise as possible. If it is not necessary to specify a keyword argument, use optional. Optional keyword parameters have default values, which are displayed as part of the function signature. They can also be detailed in the description.

When a parameter can only assume one of a fixed set of values, those values can be listed in braces, with the default appearing first. When two or more input parameters have exactly the same type, shape, and description, they can be combined.

If the Parameters section is not formatted correctly, the documentation build will render incorrectly.

If you wish to include a Returns section, write it as its own section with its own heading.


Here is an example of a correctly formatted Parameters section:

def opt_cse(exprs, order='canonical'):
    Find optimization opportunities in Adds, Muls, Pows and negative
    coefficient Muls.


    exprs : list of sympy expressions
        The expressions to optimize.
    order : string, 'none' or 'canonical'
        The order by which Mul and Add arguments are processed. For large
        expressions where speed is a concern, use the setting order='none'.


5. See Also Section

This section is encouraged. If you choose to include a See Also section in your docstring, it should be labeled with the heading “See Also” underlined with the same length in equals signs.

See Also

This section consists of a listing of related functions, classes, and methods. The related items can be described with a concise fragment (not a full sentence) if desired, but this is not required. If the description spans more than one line, subsequent lines must be indented.

The See Also section should only be used to reference other SymPy objects. Anything that is a link should be embedded as a hyperlink in the text of the docstring instead; see the References section for details.

Do not reference classes with class:Classname, class:`Classname`, or :class:`Classname`, but rather only by their class name.


Here is a correctly formatted See Also section with concise descriptions:

class erf(Function):
    The Gauss error function.

    See Also

    erfc: Complementary error function.
    erfi: Imaginary error function.
    erf2: Two-argument error function.
    erfinv: Inverse error function.
    erfcinv: Inverse Complementary error function.
    erf2inv: Inverse two-argument error function.


Here is a correctly formatted See Also section with just a list of names:

class besselj(BesselBase):
    Bessel function of the first kind.

    See Also

    bessely, besseli, besselk


6. References Section

This section is encouraged. If you choose to include a References section in your docstring, it should be labeled with the heading “References” underlined with the same length in equals signs.


This section consists of a list of references cited anywhere in the previous sections. Any reference to other SymPy objects should go in the See Also section instead.

The References section should include online resources, paper citations, and/or any other printed resource giving general information about the function. References are meant to augment the docstring, but should not be required to understand it. References are numbered, starting from one, in the order in which they are cited.

For online resources, only link to freely accessible and stable online resources such as Wikipedia, Wolfram MathWorld, and the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions (DLMF), which are unlikely to suffer from hyperlink rot.

References for papers should include, in this order: reference citation, author name, title of work, journal or publication, year published, page number.

If there is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include it in the citation and make sure it is a clickable hyperlink.


Here is a References section that cites a printed resource:


.. [1] [Kozen89] D. Kozen, S. Landau, Polynomial Decomposition Algorithms,
       Journal of Symbolic Computation 7 (1989), pp. 445-456

Here is a References section that cites printed and online resources:


.. [1] Abramowitz, Milton; Stegun, Irene A., "Chapter 9," Handbook of
       Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical
       Tables, eds. (1965)
.. [2] Luke, Y. L., The Special Functions and Their Approximations,
       Volume 1, (1969)
.. [3]
.. [4]

Sample Docstring

Here is an example of a correctly formatted docstring:

class gamma(Function):
    The gamma function

    .. math::
       \Gamma(x) := \int^{\infty}_{0} t^{x-1} e^{-t} \mathrm{d}t.


    The ``gamma`` function implements the function which passes through the
    values of the factorial function (i.e., $\Gamma(n) = (n - 1)!$), when n
    is an integer. More generally, $\Gamma(z)$ is defined in the whole
    complex plane except at the negative integers where there are simple


    >>> from sympy import S, I, pi, oo, gamma
    >>> from import x

    Several special values are known:

    >>> gamma(1)
    >>> gamma(4)
    >>> gamma(S(3)/2)

    The ``gamma`` function obeys the mirror symmetry:

    >>> from sympy import conjugate
    >>> conjugate(gamma(x))

    Differentiation with respect to $x$ is supported:

    >>> from sympy import diff
    >>> diff(gamma(x), x)
    gamma(x)*polygamma(0, x)

    Series expansion is also supported:

    >>> from sympy import series
    >>> series(gamma(x), x, 0, 3)
    1/x - EulerGamma + x*(EulerGamma**2/2 + pi**2/12) + x**2*(-EulerGamma*pi**2/12 +
    polygamma(2, 1)/6 - EulerGamma**3/6) + O(x**3)

    We can numerically evaluate the ``gamma`` function to arbitrary
    precision on the whole complex plane:

    >>> gamma(pi).evalf(40)
    >>> gamma(1+I).evalf(20)
    0.49801566811835604271 - 0.15494982830181068512*I

    See Also

    lowergamma: Lower incomplete gamma function.
    uppergamma: Upper incomplete gamma function.
    polygamma: Polygamma function.
    loggamma: Log Gamma function.
    digamma: Digamma function.
    trigamma: Trigamma function.
    beta: Euler Beta function.


    .. [1]
    .. [2]
    .. [3]
    .. [4]


Docstrings for Classes that are Mathematical Functions

SymPy is unusual in that it also has classes that are mathematical functions. The docstrings for classes that are mathematical functions should include details specific to this kind of class, as noted below:

  • The Explanation section should include a mathematical definition of the function. This should use LaTeX math. Use $$ for inline math and .. math:: for display math, which should be used for the main definition. The variable names in the formulas should match the names of the parameters, and the LaTeX formatting should match the LaTeX pretty printing used by SymPy. As relevant, the mathematical definitions should mention their domain of definition, especially if the domain is different from the complex numbers.

  • If there are multiple conventions in the literature for a function, make sure to clearly specify which convention SymPy uses.

  • The Explanation section may also include some important mathematical facts about the function. These can alternately be demonstrated in the Examples section. Mathematical discussions should not be too long, as users can check the references for more details.

  • The docstring does not need to discuss every implementation detail such as at which operations are defined on the function or at which points it evaluates in the “eval” method. Important or illuminating instances of these can be shown in the Examples section.

  • The docstring should go on the class level (right under the line that has “class”). The “eval” method should not have a docstring.

  • Private methods on the class, that is, any method that starts with an underscore, do not need to be documented. They can still be documented if you like, but note that these docstrings are not pulled into the Sphinx documentation, so they will only be seen by developers who are reading the code, so if there is anything very important that you want to mention here, it should go in the class-level docstring as well.

Best Practices for Writing Docstrings

When writing docstrings, please follow all of the same formatting, style, and tone preferences as when writing narrative documentation. For guidelines, see Best Practices for Writing Documentation, Formatting, Style, and Tone.

Importing Docstrings into the Sphinx Documentation

Here are excerpts from the doc/src/modules/geometry directory that imports the relevant docstrings from geometry module into documentation:


.. module:: sympy.geometry.util

.. autofunction:: intersection

.. autofunction:: convex_hull

.. autofunction:: are_similar


.. module:: sympy.geometry.point

.. autoclass:: Point


.. module:: sympy.geometry.line

.. autoclass:: LinearEntity

.. autoclass:: Line

.. autoclass:: Ray

.. autoclass:: Segment


.. module:: sympy.geometry.curve

.. autoclass:: Curve


.. module:: sympy.geometry.ellipse

.. autoclass:: Ellipse

.. autoclass:: Circle


.. module:: sympy.geometry.polygon

.. autoclass:: Polygon

.. autoclass:: RegularPolygon

.. autoclass:: Triangle

First namespace is set to particular submodule (file) with .. module:: directive, then docstrings are imported with .. autoclass:: or .. autofunction:: relative to that submodule (file). Other methods are either cumbersome to use (using full paths for all objects) or break something (importing relative to main module using .. module:: sympy.geometry breaks viewcode Sphinx extension). All files in doc/src/modules/ should use this format.


Any text that references another SymPy function should be formatted so that a cross-reference link to that function’s documentation is created automatically. This is done using the RST cross-reference syntax. There are two different kinds of objects that have conventions here:

1. Objects that are included in from sympy import *, for example, sympy.acos.

For these, use :obj:`~.acos()`. The ~ makes it so that the text in the rendered HTML only shows acos. Without it, it would use the fully qualified name sympy.functions.elementary.trigonometric.acos. However, for names that are part of the global sympy namespace, we do not want to encourage accessing them from their specific submodule, as this is an implementation detail that could change. The . makes it so that the function name is found automatically. Sometimes, Sphinx will give a warning that there are multiple names found. If that happens, replace the . with the full name. For example, :obj:`~sympy.solvers.solvers.solve()`. For functions, methods, and classes, it is a convention to add () after the name to indicate such.

You may also use a more specific type indicator instead of obj (see However, obj will always work, and sometimes SymPy names are not the type you might expect them to be. For example, mathematical function objects such as sin are not actually a Python function, rather they are a Python class, therefore :func:`~.sin` will not work.

2. Objects that are not included in from sympy import *, for example, sympy.physics.vector.dynamicsymbols.

This can be public API objects from submodules that are not included in the main sympy/, such as the physics submodule, or private API objects that are not necessarily intended to be used by end-users (but should still be documented). In this case, you must show the fully qualified name, so do not use the ~. syntax. For example, :obj:`sympy.physics.vector.dynamicsymbols()`.

You may also write custom text that links to the documentation for something using the following syntax :obj:`custom text<object>`. For example, :obj:`the sine function <.sin>` produces the text “the sine function” that links to the documentation for sin. Note that the ~ character should not be used here.

Note that references in the See Also section of the docstrings do not require the :obj: syntax.

If the resulting cross reference is written incorrectly, Sphinx will error when building the docs with an error like:

WARNING: py:obj reference target not found: expand

Here are some troubleshooting tips to fix the errors:

  • Make sure you have used the correct syntax, as described above.

  • Make sure you spelled the function name correctly.

  • Check if the function you are trying to cross-reference is actually included in the Sphinx documentation. If it is not, Sphinx will not be able to create a reference for it. In that case, you should add it to the appropriate RST file as described in the Docstring Guidelines.

  • If the function or object is not included in from sympy import *, you will need to use the fully qualified name, like sympy.submodule.submodule.function instead of just function.

  • A fully qualified name must include the full submodule for a function all the way down to the file. For example, sympy.physics.vector.ReferenceFrame will not work (even though you can access it that way in code). It has to be sympy.physics.vector.frame.ReferenceFrame.

  • If the thing you are referring to does not actually have somewhere to link to, do not use the :obj: syntax. Instead, mark it as code using double backticks. Examples of things that cannot be linked to are Python built in functions like int or NotImplementedError, functions from other modules outside of SymPy like matplotlib.plot, and variable or parameter names that are specific to the text at hand. In general, if the object cannot be accessed as sympy.something.something.object, it cannot be cross- referenced and you should not use the :obj: syntax.

  • If you are using are using one of the type specific identifiers like :func:, be sure that the type for it is correct. :func: only refers to Python functions. For classes, you need to use :class:, and for methods on a class you need to use :method:. In general, it is recommended to use :obj:, as this will work for any type of object.

  • If you cannot get the cross-referencing syntax to work, go ahead and submit the pull request as is and ask the reviewers for help.

You may also see errors like:

WARNING: more than one target found for cross-reference 'subs()':
sympy.core.basic.Basic.subs, sympy.matrices.common.MatrixCommon.subs,

for instance, from using :obj:`~.subs`. This means that the . is not sufficient to find the function, because there are multiple names in SymPy named subs. In this case, you need to use the fully qualified name. You can still use ~ to make it shortened in the final text, like :obj:`~sympy.core.basic.Basic.subs`.

The line numbers for warnings in Python files are relative to the top of the docstring, not the file itself. The line numbers are often not completely correct, so you will generally have to search the docstring for the part that the warning is referring to. This is due to a bug in Sphinx.