# Introducing the Domains of the poly module¶

This page introduces the idea of the “domains” that are used in SymPy’s sympy.polys module. The emphasis is on introducing how to use the domains directly and on understanding how they are used internally as part of the Poly class. This is a relatively advanced topic so for a more introductory understanding of the Poly class and the sympy.polys module it is recommended to read Basic functionality of the module instead. The reference documentation for the domain classes is in Reference docs for the Poly Domains. Internal functions that make use of the domains are documented in Internals of the Polynomial Manipulation Module.

## What are the domains?¶

For most users the domains are only really noticeable in the printed output of a Poly:

>>> from sympy import Symbol, Poly
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> Poly(x**2 + x)
Poly(x**2 + x, x, domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(x**2 + x/2)
Poly(x**2 + 1/2*x, x, domain='QQ')

We see here that one Poly has domain ZZ representing the integers and the other has domain QQ representing the rationals. These indicate the “domain” from which the coefficients of the polynomial are drawn.

From a high-level the domains represent formal concepts such as the set of integers $$\mathbb{Z}$$ or rationals $$\mathbb{Q}$$. The word “domain” here is a reference to the mathematical concept of an integral domain.

Internally the domains correspond to different computational implementations and representations of the expressions that the polynomials correspond to. The Poly object itself has an internal representation as a list of coefficients and a domain attribute representing the implementation of those coefficients:

>>> p = Poly(x**2 + x/2)
>>> p
Poly(x**2 + 1/2*x, x, domain='QQ')
>>> p.domain
QQ
>>> p.rep
DMP_Python([1, 1/2, 0], QQ)
>>> p.rep.rep
[1, 1/2, 0]
>>> type(p.rep.rep[0])
<class 'sympy.external.pythonmpq.PythonMPQ'>

Here the domain is QQ which represents the implementation of the rational numbers in the domain system. The Poly instance itself has a Poly.domain attribute QQ and then a list of PythonMPQ coefficients where PythonMPQ is the class that implements the elements of the QQ domain. The list of coefficients [1, 1/2, 0] gives a standardised low-level representation of the polynomial expression (1)*x**2 + (1/2)*x + (0).

This page looks at the different domains that are defined in SymPy, how they are implemented and how they can be used. It introduces how to use the domains and domain elements directly and explains how they are used internally as part of Poly objects. This information is more relevant for development in SymPy than it is for users of the sympy.polys module.

## Representing expressions symbolically¶

There are many different ways that a mathematical expression can be represented symbolically. The purpose of the polynomial domains is to provide suitable implementations for different classes of expressions. This section considers the basic approaches to the symbolic representation of mathematical expressions: “tree”, “dense polynomial” and “sparse polynomial”.

### Tree representation¶

The most general representation of symbolic expressions is as a tree and this is the representation used for most ordinary SymPy expressions which are instances of Expr (a subclass of Basic). We can see this representation using the srepr() function:

>>> from sympy import Symbol, srepr
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> e = 1 + 1/(2 + x**2)
>>> e
1 + 1/(x**2 + 2)
>>> print(srepr(e))

Here the expression e is represented as an Add node which has two children 1 and 1/(x**2 + 2). The child 1 is represented as an Integer and the other child is represented as a Pow with base x**2 + 2 and exponent 1. Then x**2 + 2 is represented as an Add with children x**2 and 2 and so on. In this way the expression is represented as a tree where the internal nodes are operations like Add, Mul, Pow and so on and the leaf nodes are atomic expression types like Integer and Symbol. See Advanced Expression Manipulation for more about this representation.

The tree representation is core to the architecture of Expr in SymPy. It is a highly flexible representation that can represent a very wide range of possible expressions. It can also represent equivalent expressions in different ways e.g.:

>>> e = x*(x + 1)
>>> e
x*(x + 1)
>>> e.expand()
x**2 + x

These two expression although equivalent have different tree representations:

>>> print(srepr(e))
>>> print(srepr(e.expand()))

Being able to represent the same expression in different ways is both a strength and a weakness. It is useful to be able to convert an expression in to different forms for different tasks but having non-unique representations makes it hard to tell when two expressions are equivalent which is in fact very important for many computational algorithms. The most important task is being able to tell when an expression is equal to zero which is undecidable in general (Richardon’s theorem) but is decidable in many important special cases.

### DUP representation¶

Restricting the set of allowed expressions to special cases allows for much more efficient symbolic representations. As we already saw Poly can represent a polynomial as a list of coefficients. This means that an expression like x**4 + x + 1 could be represented simply as [1, 0, 0, 1, 1]. This list of coefficients representation of a polynomial expression is known as the “dense univariate polynomial” (DUP) representation. Working within that representation algorithms for multiplication, addition and crucially zero-testing can be much more efficient than with the corresponding tree representations. We can see this representation from a Poly instance by looking it its rep.rep attribute:

>>> p = Poly(x**4 + x + 1)
>>> p.rep.rep
[1, 0, 0, 1, 1]

In the DUP representation it is not possible to represent the same expression in different ways. There is no distinction between x*(x + 1) and x**2 + x because both are just [1, 1, 0]. This means that comparing two expressions is easy: they are equal if and only if all of their coefficients are equal. Zero-testing is particularly easy: the polynomial is zero if and only if all coefficients are zero (of course we need to have easy zero-testing for the coefficients themselves).

We can make functions that operate on the DUP representation much more efficiently than functions that operate on the tree representation. Many operations with standard sympy expressions are in fact computed by converting to a polynomial representation and then performing the calculation. An example is the factor() function:

>>> from sympy import factor
>>> e = 2*x**3 + 10*x**2 + 16*x + 8
>>> e
2*x**3 + 10*x**2 + 16*x + 8
>>> factor(e)
2*(x + 1)*(x + 2)**2

Internally factor() will convert the expression from the tree representation into the DUP representation and then use the function dup_factor_list:

>>> from sympy import ZZ
>>> from sympy.polys.factortools import dup_factor_list
>>> p = [ZZ(2), ZZ(10), ZZ(16), ZZ(8)]
>>> p
[2, 10, 16, 8]
>>> dup_factor_list(p, ZZ)
(2, [([1, 1], 1), ([1, 2], 2)])

There are many more examples of functions with dup_* names for operating on the DUP representation that are documented in Internals of the Polynomial Manipulation Module. There are also functions with the dmp_* prefix for operating on multivariate polynomials.

### DMP representation¶

A multivariate polynomial (a polynomial in multiple variables) can be represented as a polynomial with coefficients that are themselves polynomials. For example x**2*y + x**2 + x*y + y + 1 can be represented as polynomial in x where the coefficients are themselves polynomials in y i.e.: (y + 1)*x**2 + (y)*x + (y+1). Since we can represent a polynomial with a list of coefficients a multivariate polynomial can be represented with a list of lists of coefficients:

>>> from sympy import symbols
>>> x, y = symbols('x, y')
>>> p = Poly(x**2*y + x**2 + x*y + y + 1)
>>> p
Poly(x**2*y + x**2 + x*y + y + 1, x, y, domain='ZZ')
>>> p.rep.rep
[[1, 1], [1, 0], [1, 1]]

This list of lists of (lists of…) coefficients representation is known as the “dense multivariate polynomial” (DMP) representation.

### Sparse polynomial representation¶

Instead of lists we can use a dict mapping nonzero monomial terms to their coefficients. This is known as the “sparse polynomial” representation. We can see what this would look like using the as_dict() method:

>>> Poly(7*x**20 + 8*x + 9).rep.rep
[7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 8, 9]
>>> Poly(7*x**20 + 8*x + 9).as_dict()
{(0,): 9, (1,): 8, (20,): 7}

The keys of this dict are the exponents of the powers of x and the values are the coefficients so e.g. 7*x**20 becomes (20,): 7 in the dict. The key is a tuple so that in the multivariate case something like 4*x**2*y**3 can be represented as (2, 3): 4. The sparse representation can be more efficient as it avoids the need to store and manipulate the zero coefficients. With a large number of generators (variables) the dense representation becomes particularly inefficient and it is better to use the sparse representation:

>>> from sympy import prod
>>> gens = symbols('x:10')
>>> gens
(x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9)
>>> p = Poly(prod(gens))
>>> p
Poly(x0*x1*x2*x3*x4*x5*x6*x7*x8*x9, x0, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, domain='ZZ')
>>> p.rep.rep
[[[[[[[[[[1, 0], []], [[]]], [[[]]]], [[[[]]]]], [[[[[]]]]]], [[[[[[]]]]]]], [[[[[[[]]]]]]]], [[[[[[[[]]]]]]]]], [[[[[[[[[]]]]]]]]]]
>>> p.as_dict()
{(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1): 1}

The dict representation shown in the last output maps from the monomial which is represented as a tuple of powers ((1, 1, 1, ...) i.e. x0**1 * x1**1, ...) to the coefficient 1. Compared to the DMP representation we have a much more flattened data structure: it is a dict with only one key and value. Algorithms for working with sparse representations would likely be much more efficient than dense algorithms for this particular example polynomial.

SymPy’s polynomial module has implementations of polynomial expressions based on both the dense and sparse representations. There are also other implementations of different special classes of expressions that can be used as the coefficients of those polynomials. The rest of this page discusses what those representations are and how to use them.

## Basic usage of domains¶

Several domains are predefined and ready to be used such as ZZ and QQ which represent the ring of integers $$\mathbb{Z}$$ and the field of rationals $$\mathbb{Q}$$. The Domain object is used to construct elements which can then be used in ordinary arithmetic operations.:

>>> from sympy import ZZ
>>> z1 = ZZ(2)
>>> z1
2
>>> z1 + z1
4
>>> type(z1)
<class 'int'>
>>> z1 in ZZ
True

The basic operations +, -, and * for addition, subtraction and multiplication will work for the elements of any domain and will produce new domain elements. Division with / (Python’s “true division” operator) is not possible for all domains and should not be used with domain elements unless the domain is known to be a field. For example dividing two elements of ZZ might give a float which is not an element of ZZ:

>>> z1 / z1
1.0
>>> type(z1 / z1)
<class 'float'>
>>> ZZ.is_Field
False

The behaviour of / for non-fields can also differ for different implementations of the ground types of the domain. For example with SYMPY_GROUND_TYPES=flint dividing two elements of ZZ will raise an error rather than return a float:

>>> z1 / z1
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for /: 'flint._flint.fmpz' and 'flint._flint.fmpz'

Most domains representing non-field rings allow floor and modulo division (remainder) with Python’s floor division // and modulo division % operators. For example with ZZ:

>>> z1 // z1
1
>>> z1 % z1
0

The QQ domain represents the field of rational numbers and does allow division:

>>> from sympy import QQ
>>> q1 = QQ(1, 2)
>>> q1
1/2
>>> q2 = QQ(2, 3)
>>> q2
2/3
>>> q1 / q2
3/4
>>> type(q1)
<class 'sympy.external.pythonmpq.PythonMPQ'>

In general code that is expected to work with elements of an arbitrary domain should not use the division operators /, // and %. Only the operators +, -, * and ** (with nonnegative integer exponent) should be assumed to work with arbitrary domain elements. All other operations should be accessed as functions from the Domain object:

>>> ZZ.quo(ZZ(5), ZZ(3))  # 5 // 3
1
>>> ZZ.rem(ZZ(5), ZZ(3))  # 5 % 3
2
>>> ZZ.div(ZZ(5), ZZ(3))  # divmod(5, 3)
(1, 2)
>>> QQ.div(QQ(5), QQ(3))
(5/3, 0)

The exquo() function is used to compute an exact quotient. This is the analogue of a / b but where the division is expected to be exact (with no remainder) or an error will be raised:

>>> QQ.exquo(QQ(5), QQ(3))
5/3
>>> ZZ.exquo(ZZ(4), ZZ(2))
2
>>> ZZ.exquo(ZZ(5), ZZ(3))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ExactQuotientFailed: 3 does not divide 5 in ZZ

The exact methods and attributes of the domain elements are not guaranteed in general beyond the basic arithmetic operations. It should not be presumed that e.g. ZZ will always be of type int. If gmpy or gmpy2 is installed then the mpz or mpq types are used instead for ZZ and QQ:

>>> from sympy import ZZ, QQ
>>> ZZ(2)
mpz(2)
>>> QQ(2, 3)
mpq(2, 3)

The mpz type is faster than Python’s standard int type for operations with large integers although for smaller integers the difference is not so significant. The mpq type representing rational numbers is implemented in C rather than Python and is many times faster than the pure Python implementation of QQ that is used when gmpy is not installed.

In general the Python type used for the elements of a domain can be checked from the dtype attribute of the domain. When gmpy is installed the dtype for ZZ is $$mpz$$ which is not an actual type and can not be used with $$isinstance$$. For this reason the of_type() method can be used to check if an object is an element of dtype.:

>>> z = ZZ(2)
>>> type(z)
<class 'int'>
>>> ZZ.dtype
<class 'int'>
>>> ZZ.of_type(z)
True

## Domain elements vs sympy expressions¶

Note that domain elements are not of the same type as ordinary sympy expressions which are subclasses of Expr such as Integer. Ordinary sympy expressions are created with the sympify() function.:

>>> from sympy import sympify
>>> z1_sympy = sympify(2)  # Normal sympy object
>>> z1_sympy
2
>>> type(z1_sympy)
<class 'sympy.core.numbers.Integer'>
>>> from sympy import Expr
>>> isinstance(z1_sympy, Expr)
True

It is important when working with the domains not to mix sympy expressions with domain elements even though it will sometimes work in simple cases. Each domain object has the methods to_sympy() and from_sympy() for converting back and forth between sympy expressions and domain elements:

>>> z_sympy = sympify(2)
>>> z_zz = ZZ.from_sympy(z_sympy)
>>> z_zz
2
>>> type(z_sympy)
<class 'sympy.core.numbers.Integer'>
>>> type(z_zz)
<class 'int'>
>>> ZZ.to_sympy(z_zz)
2
>>> type(ZZ.to_sympy(z_zz))
<class 'sympy.core.numbers.Integer'>

Any particular domain will only be able to represent some sympy expressions so conversion will fail if the expression can not be represented in the domain:

>>> from sympy import sqrt
>>> e = sqrt(2)
>>> e
sqrt(2)
>>> ZZ.from_sympy(e)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
CoercionFailed: expected an integer, got sqrt(2)

We have already seen that in some cases we can use the domain object itself as a constructor e.g. QQ(2). This will generally work provided the arguments given are valid for the dtype of the domain. Although it is convenient to use this in interactive sessions and in demonstrations it is generally better to use the from_sympy() method for constructing domain elements from sympy expressions (or from objects that can be sympified to sympy expressions).

It is important not to mix domain elements with other Python types such as int, float, as well as standard sympy Expr expressions. When working in a domain, care should be taken as some Python operations will do this implicitly. for example the sum function will use the regular int value of zero so that sum([a, b]) is effectively evaluated as (0 + a) + b where 0 is of type int.

Every domain is at least a ring if not a field and as such is guaranteed to have two elements in particular corresponding to $$1$$ and $$0$$. The domain object provides domain elements for these as the attributes one and zero. These are useful for something like Python’s sum function which allows to provide an alternative object as the “zero”:

>>> ZZ.one
1
>>> ZZ.zero
0
>>> sum([ZZ(1), ZZ(2)])  # don't do this (even it sometimes works)
3
>>> sum([ZZ(1), ZZ(2)], ZZ.zero) # provide the zero from the domain
3

A standard pattern then for performing calculations in a domain is:

2. Choose an appropriate domain that can represent the expressions.

3. Convert all expressions to domain elements using from_sympy().

4. Perform the calculation with the domain elements.

5. Convert back to Expr with to_sympy().

Here is an implementation of the sum function that illustrates these steps and sums some integers but performs the calculation using the domain elements rather than standard sympy expressions:

def sum_domain(expressions_sympy):
"""Sum sympy expressions but performing calculations in domain ZZ"""

# Convert to domain
expressions_dom = [ZZ.from_sympy(e) for e in expressions_sympy]

# Perform calculations in the domain
result_dom = ZZ.zero
for e_dom in expressions_dom:
result_dom += e_dom

# Convert the result back to Expr
result_sympy = ZZ.to_sympy(result_dom)
return result_sympy

## Gaussian integers and Gaussian rationals¶

The two example domains that we have seen so far are ZZ and QQ representing the integers and the rationals respectively. There are other simple domains such as ZZ_I and QQ_I representing the Gaussian integers and Gaussian rationals. The Gaussian integers are numbers of the form $$a\sqrt{-1} + b$$ where $$a$$ and $$b$$ are integers. The Gaussian rationals are defined similarly except that $$a$$ and $$b$$ can be rationals. We can use the Gaussian domains like:

>>> from sympy import ZZ_I, QQ_I, I
>>> z = ZZ_I.from_sympy(1 + 2*I)
>>> z
(1 + 2*I)
>>> z**2
(-3 + 4*I)

Note the contrast with the way this calculation works in the tree representation where expand() is needed to get the reduced form:

>>> from sympy import expand, I
>>> z = 1 + 2*I
>>> z**2
(1 + 2*I)**2
>>> expand(z**2)
-3 + 4*I

The ZZ_I and QQ_I domains are implemented by the classes GaussianIntegerRing and GaussianRationalField and their elements by GaussianInteger and GaussianRational respectively. The internal representation for an element of ZZ_I or QQ_I is simply as a pair (a, b) of elements of ZZ or QQ respectively. The domain ZZ_I is a ring with similar properties to ZZ whereas QQ_I is a field much like QQ:

>>> ZZ.is_Field
False
>>> QQ.is_Field
True
>>> ZZ_I.is_Field
False
>>> QQ_I.is_Field
True

Since QQ_I is a field division by nonzero elements is always possible whereas in ZZ_I we have the important concept of the greatest common divisor (GCD):

>>> e1 = QQ_I.from_sympy(1+I)
>>> e2 = QQ_I.from_sympy(2-I/2)
>>> e1/e2
(6/17 + 10/17*I)
>>> ZZ_I.gcd(ZZ_I(5), ZZ_I.from_sympy(1+2*I))
(1 + 2*I)

## Finite fields¶

So far we have seen the domains ZZ, QQ, ZZ_I, and QQ_I. There are also domains representing the Finite fields although the implementation of these is incomplete. A finite field GF(p) of prime order can be constructed with FF or GF. A domain for the finite field of prime order $$p$$ can be constructed with GF(p):

>>> from sympy import GF
>>> K = GF(5)
>>> two = K(2)
>>> two
2 mod 5
>>> two ** 2A
4 mod 5
>>> two ** 3
3 mod 5

There is also FF as an alias for GF (standing for “finite field” and “Galois field” respectively). These are equivalent and both FF(n) and GF(n) will create a domain which is an instance of FiniteField. The associated domain elements will be instances of PythonFiniteField or GMPYFiniteField depending on whether or not gmpy is installed.

Finite fields of order $$p^n$$ where $$n \ne 1$$ are not implemented. It is possible to use e.g. GF(6) or GF(9) but the resulting domain is not a field. It is just the integers modulo 6 or 9 and therefore has zero divisors and non-invertible elements:

>>> K = GF(6)
>>> K(3) * K(2)
0 mod 6

It would be good to have a proper implementation of prime-power order finite fields but this is not yet available in SymPy (contributions welcome!).

## Real and complex fields¶

The fields RR and CC are intended mathematically to correspond to the reals and the complex numbers, $$\mathbb{R}$$ and $$\mathbb{C}$$ respectively. The implementation of these uses floating point arithmetic. In practice this means that these are the domains that are used to represent expressions containing floats. Elements of RR are instances of the class RealElement and have an mpf tuple which is used to represent a float in mpmath. Elements of CC are instances of ComplexElement and have an mpc tuple which is a pair of mpf tuples representing the real and imaginary parts. See the mpmath docs for more about how floating point numbers are represented:

>>> from sympy import RR, CC
>>> xr = RR(3)
>>> xr
3.0
>>> xr._mpf_
(0, 3, 0, 2)
>>> zc = CC(3+1j)
>>> zc
(3.0 + 1.0j)
>>> zc._mpc_
((0, 3, 0, 2), (0, 1, 0, 1))

The use of approximate floating point arithmetic in these domains comes with all of the usual pitfalls. Many algorithms in the sympy.polys module are fundamentally designed for exact arithmetic making the use of these domains potentially problematic:

>>> RR('0.1') + RR('0.2') == RR('0.3')
False

Since these are implemented using mpmath which is a multiprecision library it is possible to create different domains with different working precisions. The default domains RR and CC use 53 binary digits of precision much like standard double precision floating point which corresponds to approximately 15 decimal digits:

>>> from sympy.polys.domains.realfield import RealField
>>> RR.precision
53
>>> RR.dps
15
>>> RR(1) / RR(3)
0.333333333333333
>>> RR100 = RealField(100)
>>> RR100.precision
100
>>> RR100.dps
29
>>> RR100(1) / RR100(3)
0.33333333333333333333333333333

There is however a bug in the implementation of this so that actually a global precision setting is used by all RealElement. This means that just creating RR100 above has altered the global precision and we will need to restore it in the doctest here:

>>> RR(1) / RR(3)  # wrong result!
0.33333333333333333333333333333
>>> dummy = RealField(53)  # hack to restore precision
>>> RR(1) / RR(3)  # restored
0.333333333333333

(Obviously that should be fixed!)

## Algebraic number fields¶

An algebraic extension of the rationals $$\mathbb{Q}$$ is known as an algebraic number field and these are implemented in sympy as QQ<a>. The natural syntax for these would be something like QQ(sqrt(2)) however QQ() is already overloaded as the constructor for elements of QQ. These domains are instead created using the algebraic_field() method e.g. QQ.algebraic_field(sqrt(2)). The resulting domain will be an instance of AlgebraicField with elements that are instances of ANP.

The printing support for these is less developed but we can use to_sympy() to take advantage of the corresponding Expr printing support:

>>> K = QQ.algebraic_field(sqrt(2))
>>> K
QQ<sqrt(2)>
>>> b = K.one + K.from_sympy(sqrt(2))
>>> b
ANP([1, 1], [1, 0, -2], QQ)
>>> K.to_sympy(b)
1 + sqrt(2)
>>> b ** 2
ANP([2, 3], [1, 0, -2], QQ)
>>> K.to_sympy(b**2)
2*sqrt(2) + 3

The raw printed display immediately shows the internal representation of the elements as ANP instances. The field $$\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2})$$ consists of numbers of the form $$a\sqrt{2}+b$$ where $$a$$ and $$b$$ are rational numbers. Consequently every number in this field can be represented as a pair (a, b) of elements of QQ. The domain element stores these two in a list and also stores a list representation of the minimal polynomial for the extension element $$\sqrt{2}$$. There is a sympy function minpoly() that can compute the minimal polynomial of any algebraic expression over the rationals:

>>> from sympy import minpoly, Symbol
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> minpoly(sqrt(2), x)
x**2 - 2

In the dense polynomial representation as a list of coefficients this polynomial is represented as [1, 0, -2] as seen in the ANP display for the elements of QQ<sqrt(2)> above.

It is also possible to create an algebraic number field with multiple generators such as $$\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2},\sqrt{3})$$:

>>> K = QQ.algebraic_field(sqrt(2), sqrt(3))
>>> K
QQ<sqrt(2) + sqrt(3)>
>>> sqrt2 = K.from_sympy(sqrt(2))
>>> sqrt3 = K.from_sympy(sqrt(3))
>>> p = (K.one + sqrt2) * (K.one + sqrt3)
>>> p
ANP([1/2, 1, -3/2], [1, 0, -10, 0, 1], QQ)
>>> K.to_sympy(p)
1 + sqrt(2) + sqrt(3) + sqrt(6)
>>> K.to_sympy(p**2)
4*sqrt(6) + 6*sqrt(3) + 8*sqrt(2) + 12

Here the algebraic extension $$\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2},\sqrt{3})$$ is converted to the (isomorphic) $$\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3})$$ with a single generator $$\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3}$$. It is always possible to find a single generator like this due to the primitive element theorem. There is a sympy function primitive_element() that can compute the minimal polynomial for a primitive element of an extension:

>>> from sympy import primitive_element, minpoly
>>> e = primitive_element([sqrt(2), sqrt(3)], x)
>>> e[0]
x**4 - 10*x**2 + 1
>>> e[0].subs(x, sqrt(2) + sqrt(3)).expand()
0

The minimal polynomial x**4 - 10*x**2 + 1 has the dense list representation [1, 0, -10, 0, 1] as seen in the ANP output above. What the primitive element theorem means is that all algebraic number fields can be represented as an extension of the rationals by a single generator with some minimal polynomial. Calculations over the algebraic number field only need to take advantage of the minimal polynomial and that makes it possible to compute all arithmetic operations and also to carry out higher level operations like factorisation of polynomials.

## Polynomial ring domains¶

There are also domains implemented to represent a polynomial ring like K[x] which is the domain of polynomials in the generator x with coefficients over another domain K:

>>> from sympy import ZZ, symbols
>>> x = symbols('x')
>>> K = ZZ[x]
>>> K
ZZ[x]
>>> x_dom = K(x)
>>> x_dom + K.one
x + 1

All the operations discussed before will work with elements of a polynomial ring:

>>> p = x_dom + K.one
>>> p
x + 1
>>> p + p
2*x + 2
>>> p - p
0
>>> p * p
x**2 + 2*x + 1
>>> p ** 3
x**3 + 3*x**2 + 3*x + 1
>>> K.exquo(x_dom**2 - K.one, x_dom - K.one)
x + 1

The internal representation of elements of K[x] is different from the way that ordinary sympy (Expr) expressions are represented. The Expr representation of any expression is as a tree e.g.:

>>> from sympy import srepr
>>> K = ZZ[x]
>>> p_expr = x**2 + 2*x + 1
>>> p_expr
x**2 + 2*x + 1
>>> srepr(p_expr)

Here the expression is a tree where the top node is an Add and its children nodes are Pow etc. This tree representation makes it possible to represent equivalent expressions in different ways e.g.:

>>> x = symbols('x')
>>> p_expr = x*(x + 1) + x
>>> p_expr
x*(x + 1) + x
>>> p_expr.expand()
x**2 + 2*x

By contrast the domain ZZ[x] represents only polynomials and does so by simply storing the non-zero coefficients of the expanded polynomial (the “sparse” polynomial representation). In particular elements of ZZ[x] are represented as a Python dict. Their type is PolyElement which is a subclass of dict. Converting to a normal dict shows the internal representation:

>>> x = symbols('x')
>>> K = ZZ[x]
>>> x_dom = K(x)
>>> p_dom = K(3)*x_dom**2 + K(2)*x_dom + K(7)
>>> p_dom
3*x**2 + 2*x + 7
>>> dict(p_dom)
{(0,): 7, (1,): 2, (2,): 3}

This internal form makes it impossible to represent unexpanded multiplications so any multiplication of elements of ZZ[x] will always be expanded:

>>> x = symbols('x')
>>> K = ZZ[x]
>>> x_dom = K(x)
>>> p_expr = x * (x + 1) + x
>>> p_expr
x*(x + 1) + x
>>> p_dom = x_dom * (x_dom + K.one) + x_dom
>>> p_dom
x**2 + 2*x

These same considerations apply to powers:

>>> (x + 1) ** 2
(x + 1)**2
>>> (x_dom + K.one) ** 2
x**2 + 2*x + 1

We can also construct multivariate polynomial rings:

>>> x, y = symbols('x, y')
>>> K = ZZ[x,y]
>>> xk = K(x)
>>> yk = K(y)
>>> xk**2*yk + xk + yk
x**2*y + x + y

It is also possible to construct nested polynomial rings (although it is less efficient). The ring K[x][y] is formally equivalent to K[x,y] although their implementations in sympy are different:

>>> K = ZZ[x][y]
>>> p = K(x**2 + x*y + y**2)
>>> p
y**2 + x*y + x**2
>>> dict(p)
{(0,): x**2, (1,): x, (2,): 1}

Here the coefficients like x**2 are instances of PolyElement as well so this is a dict where the values are also dicts. The full representation is more like:

>>> {k: dict(v) for k, v in p.items()}
{(0,): {(2,): 1}, (1,): {(1,): 1}, (2,): {(0,): 1}}

The multivariate ring domain ZZ[x,y] has a more efficient representation as a single flattened dict:

>>> K = ZZ[x,y]
>>> p = K(x**2 + x*y + y**2)
>>> p
x**2 + x*y + y**2
>>> dict(p)
{(0, 2): 1, (1, 1): 1, (2, 0): 1}

The difference in efficiency between these representations grows as the number of generators increases i.e. ZZ[x,y,z,t,...] vs ZZ[x][y][z][t]....

## Old (dense) polynomial rings¶

In the last section we saw that the domain representation of a polynomial ring like K[x] uses a sparse representation of a polynomial as a dict mapping monomial exponents to coefficients. There is also an older version of K[x] that uses the dense DMP representation. We can create these two versions of K[x] using poly_ring() and old_poly_ring() where the syntax K[x] is equivalent to K.poly_ring(x):

>>> K1 = ZZ.poly_ring(x)
>>> K2 = ZZ.old_poly_ring(x)
>>> K1
ZZ[x]
>>> K2
ZZ[x]
>>> K1 == ZZ[x]
True
>>> K2 == ZZ[x]
False
>>> p1 = K1.from_sympy(x**2 + 1)
>>> p2 = K2.from_sympy(x**2 + 1)
>>> p1
x**2 + 1
>>> p2
DMP_Python([1, 0, 1], ZZ)
>>> type(K1)
<class 'sympy.polys.domains.polynomialring.PolynomialRing'>
>>> type(p1)
<class 'sympy.polys.rings.PolyElement'>
>>> type(K2)
<class 'sympy.polys.domains.old_polynomialring.GlobalPolynomialRing'>
>>> type(p2)
<class 'sympy.polys.polyclasses.DMP_Python'>

The internal representation of the old polynomial ring domain is the DMP representation as a list of (lists of) coefficients:

>>> repr(p2)
'DMP_Python([1, 0, 1], ZZ, ZZ[x])'

The most notable use of the DMP representation of polynomials is as the internal representation used by Poly (this is discussed later in this page of the docs).

## PolyRing vs PolynomialRing¶

You might just want to perform calculations in some particular polynomial ring without being concerned with implementing something that works for arbitrary domains. In that case you can construct the ring more directly with the ring() function:

>>> from sympy import ring
>>> K, xr, yr = ring([x, y], ZZ)
>>> K
Polynomial ring in x, y over ZZ with lex order
>>> xr**2 - yr**2
x**2 - y**2
>>> (xr**2 - yr**2) // (xr - yr)
x + y

The object K here represents the ring and is an instance of PolyRing but is not a polys domain (it is not an instance of a subclass of Domain so it can not be used with Poly). In this way the implementation of polynomial rings that is used in the domain system can be used independently of the domain system.

The purpose of the domain system is to provide a unified interface for working with and converting between different representations of expressions. To make the PolyRing implementation usable in that context the PolynomialRing class is a wrapper around the PolyRing class that provides the interface expected in the domain system. That makes this implementation of polynomial rings usable as part of the broader codebase that is designed to work with expressions from different domains. The domain for polynomial rings is a distinct object from the ring returned by ring() although both have the same elements:

>>> K, xr, yr = ring([x, y], ZZ)
>>> K
Polynomial ring in x, y over ZZ with lex order
>>> K2 = ZZ[x,y]
>>> K2
ZZ[x,y]
>>> K2.ring
Polynomial ring in x, y over ZZ with lex order
>>> K2.ring == K
True
>>> K(x+y)
x + y
>>> K2(x+y)
x + y
>>> type(K(x+y))
<class 'sympy.polys.rings.PolyElement'>
>>> type(K2(x+y))
<class 'sympy.polys.rings.PolyElement'>
>>> K(x+y) == K2(x+y)
True

## Rational function fields¶

Some domains are classified as fields and others are not. The principal difference between a field and a non-field domain is that in a field it is always possible to divide any element by any nonzero element. It is usually possible to convert any domain to a field that contains that domain with the get_field() method:

>>> from sympy import ZZ, QQ, symbols
>>> x, y = symbols('x, y')
>>> ZZ.is_Field
False
>>> QQ.is_Field
True
>>> QQ[x]
QQ[x]
>>> QQ[x].is_Field
False
>>> QQ[x].get_field()
QQ(x)
>>> QQ[x].get_field().is_Field
True
>>> QQ.frac_field(x)
QQ(x)

This introduces a new kind of domain K(x) representing a rational function field in the generator x over another domain K. It is not possible to construct the domain QQ(x) with the () syntax so the easiest ways to create it are using the domain methods frac_field() (QQ.frac_field(x)) or get_field() (QQ[x].get_field()). The frac_field() method is the more direct approach.

The rational function field K(x) is an instance of RationalField. This domain represents functions of the form $$p(x) / q(x)$$ for polynomials $$p$$ and $$q$$. The domain elements are represented as a pair of polynomials in K[x]:

>>> K = QQ.frac_field(x)
>>> xk = K(x)
>>> f = xk / (K.one + xk**2)
>>> f
x/(x**2 + 1)
>>> f.numer
x
>>> f.denom
x**2 + 1
>>> QQ[x].of_type(f.numer)
True
>>> QQ[x].of_type(f.denom)
True

Cancellation between the numerator and denominator is automatic in this field:

>>> p1 = xk**2 - 1
>>> p2 = xk - 1
>>> p1
x**2 - 1
>>> p2
x - 1
>>> p1 / p2
x + 1

Computing this cancellation can be slow which makes rational function fields potentially slower than polynomial rings or algebraic fields.

Just like in the case of polynomial rings there is both a new (sparse) and old (dense) version of fraction fields:

>>> K1 = QQ.frac_field(x)
>>> K2 = QQ.old_frac_field(x)
>>> K1
QQ(x)
>>> K2
QQ(x)
>>> type(K1)
<class 'sympy.polys.domains.fractionfield.FractionField'>
>>> type(K2)
<class 'sympy.polys.domains.old_fractionfield.FractionField'>

Also just like in the case of polynomials rings the implementation of rational function fields can be used independently of the domain system:

>>> from sympy import field
>>> K, xf, yf = field([x, y], ZZ)
>>> xf / (1 - yf)
-x/(y - 1)

Here K is an instance of FracField rather than RationalField as it would be for the domain ZZ(x,y).

## Expression domain¶

The final domain to consider is the “expression domain” which is known as EX. Expressions that can not be represented using the other domains can be always represented using the expression domain. An element of EX is actually just a wrapper around a Expr instance:

>>> from sympy import EX
>>> p = EX.from_sympy(1 + x)
>>> p
EX(x + 1)
>>> type(p)
<class 'sympy.polys.domains.expressiondomain.ExpressionDomain.Expression'>
>>> p.ex
x + 1
>>> type(p.ex)

For other domains the domain representation of expressions is usually more efficient than the tree representation used by Expr. In EX the internal representation is Expr so it is clearly not more efficient. The purpose of the EX domain is to be able to wrap up arbitrary expressions in an interface that is consistent with the other domains. The EX domain is used as a fallback when an appropriate domain can not be found. Although this does not offer any particular efficiency it does allow the algorithms that are implemented to work over arbitrary domains to be usable when working with expressions that do not have an appropriate domain representation.

## Choosing a domain¶

In the workflow described above the idea is to start with some sympy expressions, choose a domain and convert all the expressions into that domain in order to perform some calculation. The obvious question that arises is how to choose an appropriate domain to represent some sympy expressions. For this there is a function construct_domain() which takes a list of expressions and will choose a domain and convert all of the expressions to that domain:

>>> from sympy import construct_domain, Integer
>>> elements_sympy = [Integer(3), Integer(2)]  # elements as Expr instances
>>> elements_sympy
[3, 2]
>>> K, elements_K = construct_domain(elements_sympy)
>>> K
ZZ
>>> elements_K
[3, 2]
>>> type(elements_sympy[0])
<class 'sympy.core.numbers.Integer'>
>>> type(elements_K[0])
<class 'int'>

In this example we see that the two integers 3 and 2 can be represented in the domain ZZ. The expressions have been converted to elements of that domain which in this case means the int type rather than instances of Expr. It is not necessary to explicitly create Expr instances when the inputs can be sympified so e.g. construct_domain([3, 2]) would give the same output as above.

Given more complicated inputs construct_domain() will choose more complicated domains:

>>> from sympy import Rational, symbols
>>> x, y = symbols('x, y')
>>> construct_domain([Rational(1, 2), Integer(3)])[0]
QQ
>>> construct_domain([2*x, 3])[0]
ZZ[x]
>>> construct_domain([x/2, 3])[0]
QQ[x]
>>> construct_domain([2/x, 3])[0]
ZZ(x)
>>> construct_domain([x, y])[0]
ZZ[x,y]

If any noninteger rational numbers are found in the inputs then the ground domain will be QQ rather than ZZ. If any symbol is found in the inputs then a PolynomialRing will be created. A multivariate polynomial ring such as QQ[x,y] can also be created if there are multiple symbols in the inputs. If any symbols appear in the denominators then a RationalField like QQ(x) will be created instead.

Some of the domains above are fields and others are (non-field) rings. In some contexts it is necessary to have a field domain so that division is possible and for this construct_domain() has an option field=True which will force the construction of a field domain even if the expressions can all be represented in a non-field ring:

>>> construct_domain([1, 2], field=True)[0]
QQ
>>> construct_domain([2*x, 3], field=True)[0]
ZZ(x)
>>> construct_domain([x/2, 3], field=True)[0]
ZZ(x)
>>> construct_domain([2/x, 3], field=True)[0]
ZZ(x)
>>> construct_domain([x, y], field=True)[0]
ZZ(x,y)

By default construct_domain() will not construct an algebraic extension field and will instead use the EX domain (ExpressionDomain). The keyword argument extension=True can be used to construct an AlgebraicField if the inputs are irrational but algebraic:

>>> from sympy import sqrt
>>> construct_domain([sqrt(2)])[0]
EX
>>> construct_domain([sqrt(2)], extension=True)[0]
QQ<sqrt(2)>
>>> construct_domain([sqrt(2), sqrt(3)], extension=True)[0]
QQ<sqrt(2) + sqrt(3)>

When there are algebraically independent transcendentals in the inputs a PolynomialRing or RationalField will be constructed treating those transcendentals as generators:

>>> from sympy import sin, cos
>>> construct_domain([sin(x), y])[0]
ZZ[y,sin(x)]

However if there is a possibility that the inputs are not algebraically independent then the domain will be EX:

>>> construct_domain([sin(x), cos(x)])[0]
EX

Here sin(x) and cos(x) are not algebraically independent since sin(x)**2 + cos(x)**2 = 1.

## Converting elements between different domains¶

It is often useful to combine calculations performed over different domains. However just as it is important to avoid mixing domain elements with normal sympy expressions and other Python types it is also important to avoid mixing elements from different domains. The convert_from() method is used to convert elements from one domain into elements of another domain:

>>> num_zz = ZZ(3)
>>> ZZ.of_type(num_zz)
True
>>> num_qq = QQ.convert_from(num_zz, ZZ)
>>> ZZ.of_type(num_qq)
False
>>> QQ.of_type(num_qq)
True

The convert() method can be called without specifying the source domain as the second argument e.g.:

>>> QQ.convert(ZZ(2))
2

This works because convert() can check the type of ZZ(2) and can try to work out what domain (ZZ) it is an element of. Certain domains like ZZ and QQ are treated as special cases to make this work. Elements of more complicated domains are instances of subclasses of DomainElement which has a parent() method that can identify the domain that the element belongs to. For example in the polynomial ring ZZ[x] we have:

>>> from sympy import ZZ, Symbol
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> K = ZZ[x]
>>> K
ZZ[x]
>>> p = K(x) + K.one
>>> p
x + 1
>>> type(p)
<class 'sympy.polys.rings.PolyElement'>
>>> p.parent()
ZZ[x]
>>> p.parent() == K
True

It is more efficient though to call convert_from() with the source domain specified as the second argument:

>>> QQ.convert_from(ZZ(2), ZZ)
2

## Unifying domains¶

When we want to combine elements from two different domains and perform mixed calculations with them we need to

1. Choose a new domain that can represent all elements of both.

2. Convert all elements to the new domain.

3. Perform the calculation in the new domain.

The key question arising from point 1. is how to choose a domain that can represent the elements of both domains. For this there is the unify() method:

>>> x1, K1 = ZZ(2), ZZ
>>> y2, K2 = QQ(3, 2), QQ
>>> K1
ZZ
>>> K2
QQ
>>> K3 = K1.unify(K2)
>>> K3
QQ
>>> x3 = K3.convert_from(x1, K1)
>>> y3 = K3.convert_from(y2, K2)
>>> x3 + y3
7/2

The unify() method will find a domain that encompasses both domains so in this example ZZ.unify(QQ) gives QQ because every element of ZZ can be represented as an element of QQ. This means that all inputs (x1 and y2) can be converted to the elements of the common domain K3 (as x3 and y3). Once in the common domain we can safely use arithmetic operations like +. In this example one domain is a superset of the other and we see that K1.unify(K2) == K2 so it is not actually necessary to convert y2. In general though K1.unify(K2) can give a new domain that is not equal to either K1 or K2.

The unify() method understands how to combine different polynomial ring domains and how to unify the base domain:

>>> ZZ[x].unify(ZZ[y])
ZZ[x,y]
>>> ZZ[x,y].unify(ZZ[y])
ZZ[x,y]
>>> ZZ[x].unify(QQ)
QQ[x]

It is also possible to unify algebraic fields and rational function fields as well:

>>> K1 = QQ.algebraic_field(sqrt(2))[x]
>>> K2 = QQ.algebraic_field(sqrt(3))[y]
>>> K1
QQ<sqrt(2)>[x]
>>> K2
QQ<sqrt(3)>[y]
>>> K1.unify(K2)
QQ<sqrt(2) + sqrt(3)>[x,y]
>>> QQ.frac_field(x).unify(ZZ[y])
ZZ(x,y)

## Internals of a Poly¶

We are now in a position to understand how the Poly class works internally. This is the public interface of Poly:

>>> from sympy import Poly, symbols, ZZ
>>> x, y, z, t = symbols('x, y, z, t')
>>> p = Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain=ZZ)
>>> p
Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain='ZZ')
>>> p.gens
(x,)
>>> p.domain
ZZ
>>> p.all_coeffs()
[1, 0, 1]
>>> p.as_expr()
x**2 + 1

This is the internal implementation of Poly:

>>> d = p.rep  # internal representation of Poly
>>> d
DMP_Python([1, 0, 1], ZZ)
>>> d.rep      # internal representation of DMP
[1, 0, 1]
>>> type(d.rep)
<class 'list'>
>>> type(d.rep[0])
<class 'int'>
>>> d.dom
ZZ

The internal representation of a Poly instance is an instance of DMP which is the class used for domain elements in the old polynomial ring domain old_poly_ring(). This represents the polynomial as a list of coefficients which are themselves elements of a domain and keeps a reference to their domain (ZZ in this example).

## Choosing a domain for a Poly¶

If the domain is not specified for the Poly constructor then it is inferred using construct_domain(). Arguments like field=True are passed along to construct_domain():

>>> from sympy import sqrt
>>> Poly(x**2 + 1, x)
Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(x**2 + 1, x, field=True)
Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain='QQ')
>>> Poly(x**2/2 + 1, x)
Poly(1/2*x**2 + 1, x, domain='QQ')
>>> Poly(x**2 + sqrt(2), x)
Poly(x**2 + sqrt(2), x, domain='EX')
>>> Poly(x**2 + sqrt(2), x, extension=True)
Poly(x**2 + sqrt(2), x, domain='QQ<sqrt(2)>')

It is also possible to use the extension argument to specify generators of an extension even if no extension is required to represent the coefficients although this does not work when using construct_domain() directly. A list of extension elements will be passed to primitive_element() to create an appropriate AlgebraicField domain:

>>> from sympy import construct_domain
>>> Poly(x**2 + 1, x)
Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(x**2 + 1, x, extension=sqrt(2))
Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain='QQ<sqrt(2)>')
>>> Poly(x**2 + 1, x, extension=[sqrt(2), sqrt(3)])
Poly(x**2 + 1, x, domain='QQ<sqrt(2) + sqrt(3)>')
>>> construct_domain([1, 0, 1], extension=sqrt(2))[0]
ZZ

(Perhaps construct_domain() should do the same as Poly here…)

## Choosing generators¶

If there are symbols other than the generators then a polynomial ring or rational function field domain will be created. The domain used for the coefficients in this case is the sparse (“new”) polynomial ring:

>>> p = Poly(x**2*y + z, x)
>>> p
Poly(y*x**2 + z, x, domain='ZZ[y,z]')
>>> p.gens
(x,)
>>> p.domain
ZZ[y,z]
>>> p.domain == ZZ[y,z]
True
>>> p.domain == ZZ.poly_ring(y, z)
True
>>> p.domain == ZZ.old_poly_ring(y, z)
False
>>> p.rep.rep
[y, 0, z]
>>> p.rep.rep[0]
y
>>> type(p.rep.rep[0])
<class 'sympy.polys.rings.PolyElement'>
>>> dict(p.rep.rep[0])
{(1, 0): 1}

What we have here is a strange hybrid of dense and sparse implementations. The Poly instance considers itself to be an univariate polynomial in the generator x but with coefficients from the domain ZZ[y,z]. The internal representation of the Poly is a list of coefficients in the “dense univariate polynomial” (DUP) format. However each coefficient is implemented as a sparse polynomial in y and z.

If we make x, y and z all be generators for the Poly then we get a fully dense DMP list of lists of lists representation:

>>> p = Poly(x**2*y + z, x, y, z)
>>> p
Poly(x**2*y + z, x, y, z, domain='ZZ')
>>> p.rep
DMP_Python([[[1], []], [[]], [[1, 0]]], ZZ)
>>> p.rep.rep
[[[1], []], [[]], [[1, 0]]]
>>> p.rep.rep[0][0][0]
1
>>> type(p.rep.rep[0][0][0])
<class 'int'>

On the other hand we can make a Poly with a fully sparse representation by choosing a generator that is not in the expression at all:

>>> p = Poly(x**2*y + z, t)
>>> p
Poly(x**2*y + z, t, domain='ZZ[x,y,z]')
>>> p.rep
DMP_Python([x**2*y + z], ZZ[x,y,z])
>>> p.rep.rep[0]
x**2*y + z
>>> type(p.rep.rep[0])
<class 'sympy.polys.rings.PolyElement'>
>>> dict(p.rep.rep[0])
{(0, 0, 1): 1, (2, 1, 0): 1}

If no generators are provided to the Poly constructor then it will attempt to choose generators so that the expression is polynomial in those. In the common case that the expression is a polynomial expression in some symbols then those symbols will be taken as generators. However other non-symbol expressions can also be taken as generators:

>>> Poly(x**2*y + z)
Poly(x**2*y + z, x, y, z, domain='ZZ')
>>> from sympy import pi, exp
>>> Poly(exp(x) + exp(2*x) + 1)
Poly((exp(x))**2 + (exp(x)) + 1, exp(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(pi*x)
Poly(x*pi, x, pi, domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(pi*x, x)
Poly(pi*x, x, domain='ZZ[pi]')

## Algebraically dependent generators¶

Taking exp(x) or pi as generators for a Poly or for its polynomial ring domain is mathematically valid because these objects are transcendental and so the ring extension containing them is isomorphic to a polynomial ring. Since x and exp(x) are algebraically independent it is also valid to use both as generators for the same Poly. However some other combinations of generators are invalid such as x and sqrt(x) or sin(x) and cos(x). These examples are invalid because the generators are not algebraically independent (e.g. sqrt(x)**2 = x and sin(x)**2 + cos(x)**2 = 1). The implementation is not able to detect these algebraic relationships though:

>>> from sympy import sin, cos, sqrt
>>> Poly(x*exp(x))      # fine
Poly(x*(exp(x)), x, exp(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(sin(x)+cos(x)) # not fine
Poly((cos(x)) + (sin(x)), cos(x), sin(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(x + sqrt(x))   # not fine
Poly(x + (sqrt(x)), x, sqrt(x), domain='ZZ')

Calculations with a Poly such as this are unreliable because zero-testing will not work properly in this implementation:

>>> p1 = Poly(x, x, sqrt(x))
>>> p2 = Poly(sqrt(x), x, sqrt(x))
>>> p1
Poly(x, x, sqrt(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> p2
Poly((sqrt(x)), x, sqrt(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> p3 = p1 - p2**2
>>> p3                  # should be zero...
Poly(x - (sqrt(x))**2, x, sqrt(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> p3.as_expr()
0

This aspect of Poly could be improved by:

1. Expanding the domain system with new domains that can represent more classes of algebraic extension.

2. Improving the detection of algebraic dependencies in construct_domain().

3. Improving the automatic selection of generators.

Examples of the above are that it would be useful to have a domain that can represent more general algebraic extensions (AlgebraicField is only for extensions of QQ). Improving the detection of algebraic dependencies is harder but at least common cases like sin(x) and cos(x) could be handled. When choosing generators it should be possible to recognise that sqrt(x) can be the only generator for x + sqrt(x):

>>> Poly(x + sqrt(x))            # this could be improved!
Poly(x + (sqrt(x)), x, sqrt(x), domain='ZZ')
>>> Poly(x + sqrt(x), sqrt(x))   # this could be improved!
Poly((sqrt(x)) + x, sqrt(x), domain='ZZ[x]')