Control API

lti

class sympy.physics.control.lti.Feedback(num, den)[source]

A class for representing negative feedback interconnection between two input/output systems. The first argument, num, is called as the primary plant or the numerator, and the second argument, den, is called as the feedback plant (which is often a feedback controller) or the denominator. Both num and den can either be Series or TransferFunction objects.

Parameters

num : Series, TransferFunction

The primary plant.

den : Series, TransferFunction

The feedback plant (often a feedback controller).

Raises

ValueError

When num is equal to den or when they are not using the same complex variable of the Laplace transform.

TypeError

When either num or den is not a Series or a TransferFunction object.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Feedback
>>> plant = TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> controller = TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)
>>> F1 = Feedback(plant, controller)
>>> F1
Feedback(TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s), TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s))
>>> F1.var
s
>>> F1.args
(TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s), TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s))

You can get the primary and the feedback plant using .num and .den respectively.

>>> F1.num
TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> F1.den
TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)

You can get the resultant closed loop transfer function obtained by negative feedback interconnection using .doit() method.

>>> F1.doit()
TransferFunction((s + 7)*(s**2 - 4*s + 2)*(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3), ((s + 7)*(s**2 - 4*s + 2) + (5*s - 10)*(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3))*(s**2 - 4*s + 2), s)
>>> G = TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, s**2 + 2*s + 3, s)
>>> C = TransferFunction(5*s + 10, s + 10, s)
>>> F2 = Feedback(G*C, TransferFunction(1, 1, s))
>>> F2.doit()
TransferFunction((s + 10)*(5*s + 10)*(s**2 + 2*s + 3)*(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1), (s + 10)*((s + 10)*(s**2 + 2*s + 3) + (5*s + 10)*(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1))*(s**2 + 2*s + 3), s)

To negate a Feedback object, the - operator can be prepended:

>>> -F1
Feedback(TransferFunction(-3*s**2 - 7*s + 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s), TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s))
>>> -F2
Feedback(Series(TransferFunction(-1, 1, s), Series(TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, s**2 + 2*s + 3, s), TransferFunction(5*s + 10, s + 10, s))), TransferFunction(1, 1, s))
property den

Returns the feedback plant (often a feedback controller) of the negative feedback closed loop.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Feedback
>>> plant = TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> controller = TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)
>>> F1 = Feedback(plant, controller)
>>> F1.den
TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)
>>> G = TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, p**2 + 2*p + 3, p)
>>> C = TransferFunction(5*p + 10, p + 10, p)
>>> P = TransferFunction(1 - s, p + 2, p)
>>> F2 = Feedback(TransferFunction(1, 1, p), G*C*P)
>>> F2.den
Series(TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, p**2 + 2*p + 3, p), TransferFunction(5*p + 10, p + 10, p), TransferFunction(1 - s, p + 2, p))
doit(**kwargs)[source]

Returns the resultant closed loop transfer function obtained by the negative feedback interconnection.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Feedback
>>> plant = TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> controller = TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)
>>> F1 = Feedback(plant, controller)
>>> F1.doit()
TransferFunction((s + 7)*(s**2 - 4*s + 2)*(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3), ((s + 7)*(s**2 - 4*s + 2) + (5*s - 10)*(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3))*(s**2 - 4*s + 2), s)
>>> G = TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, s**2 + 2*s + 3, s)
>>> F2 = Feedback(G, TransferFunction(1, 1, s))
>>> F2.doit()
TransferFunction((s**2 + 2*s + 3)*(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1), (s**2 + 2*s + 3)*(3*s**2 + 7*s + 4), s)
property num

Returns the primary plant of the negative feedback closed loop.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Feedback
>>> plant = TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> controller = TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)
>>> F1 = Feedback(plant, controller)
>>> F1.num
TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> G = TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, p**2 + 2*p + 3, p)
>>> C = TransferFunction(5*p + 10, p + 10, p)
>>> P = TransferFunction(1 - s, p + 2, p)
>>> F2 = Feedback(TransferFunction(1, 1, p), G*C*P)
>>> F2.num
TransferFunction(1, 1, p)
property var

Returns the complex variable of the Laplace transform used by all the transfer functions involved in the negative feedback closed loop.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Feedback
>>> plant = TransferFunction(3*s**2 + 7*s - 3, s**2 - 4*s + 2, s)
>>> controller = TransferFunction(5*s - 10, s + 7, s)
>>> F1 = Feedback(plant, controller)
>>> F1.var
s
>>> G = TransferFunction(2*s**2 + 5*s + 1, p**2 + 2*p + 3, p)
>>> C = TransferFunction(5*p + 10, p + 10, p)
>>> P = TransferFunction(1 - s, p + 2, p)
>>> F2 = Feedback(TransferFunction(1, 1, p), G*C*P)
>>> F2.var
p
class sympy.physics.control.lti.Parallel(*args, evaluate=False)[source]

A class for representing addition of transfer functions or transfer functions in a parallel configuration.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Parallel, Series
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s)
>>> P1 = Parallel(tf1, tf2)
>>> P1
Parallel(TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, -p + s, s), TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s))
>>> P1.var
s
>>> P2 = Parallel(tf2, Series(tf3, -tf1))
>>> P2
Parallel(TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s), Series(TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s), TransferFunction(-a*p**2 - b*s, -p + s, s)))
>>> P2.var
s
>>> P3 = Parallel(Series(tf1, tf2), Series(tf2, tf3))
>>> P3
Parallel(Series(TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, -p + s, s), TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)), Series(TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s), TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s)))
>>> P3.var
s

You can get the resultant transfer function by using .doit() method:

>>> Parallel(tf1, tf2, -tf3).doit()
TransferFunction(-p**2*(-p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6) + (p + s)*((-p + s)*(s**3 - 2) + (a*p**2 + b*s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6)), (-p + s)*(p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)
>>> Parallel(tf2, Series(tf1, -tf3)).doit()
TransferFunction(-p**2*(a*p**2 + b*s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6) + (-p + s)*(p + s)*(s**3 - 2), (-p + s)*(p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)

Notes

All the transfer functions should use the same complex variable var of the Laplace transform.

doit(**kwargs)[source]

Returns the resultant transfer function obtained after evaluating the transfer functions in parallel configuration.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Parallel
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> Parallel(tf2, tf1).doit()
TransferFunction((-p + s)*(s**3 - 2) + (a*p**2 + b*s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), (-p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)
>>> Parallel(-tf1, -tf2).doit()
TransferFunction((2 - s**3)*(-p + s) + (-a*p**2 - b*s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), (-p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)
property is_biproper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial of the resultant transfer function is equal to degree of the denominator polynomial of the same, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Parallel
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(s, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> P1 = Parallel(tf1, -tf2)
>>> P1.is_biproper
True
>>> P2 = Parallel(tf2, tf3)
>>> P2.is_biproper
False
property is_proper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial of the resultant transfer function is less than or equal to degree of the denominator polynomial of the same, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Parallel
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(b*s**2 + p**2 - a*p + s, b - p**2, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(p**2 - 4*p, p**3 + 3*s + 2, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(s, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> P1 = Parallel(-tf2, tf1)
>>> P1.is_proper
False
>>> P2 = Parallel(tf2, tf3)
>>> P2.is_proper
True
property is_strictly_proper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial of the resultant transfer function is strictly less than degree of the denominator polynomial of the same, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Parallel
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(s, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> P1 = Parallel(tf1, tf2)
>>> P1.is_strictly_proper
False
>>> P2 = Parallel(tf2, tf3)
>>> P2.is_strictly_proper
True
property var

Returns the complex variable used by all the transfer functions.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Parallel, Series
>>> G1 = TransferFunction(p**2 + 2*p + 4, p - 6, p)
>>> G2 = TransferFunction(p, 4 - p, p)
>>> G3 = TransferFunction(0, p**4 - 1, p)
>>> Parallel(G1, G2).var
p
>>> Parallel(-G3, Series(G1, G2)).var
p
class sympy.physics.control.lti.Series(*args, evaluate=False)[source]

A class for representing product of transfer functions or transfer functions in a series configuration.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Series, Parallel
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s)
>>> S1 = Series(tf1, tf2)
>>> S1
Series(TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, -p + s, s), TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s))
>>> S1.var
s
>>> S2 = Series(tf2, Parallel(tf3, -tf1))
>>> S2
Series(TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s), Parallel(TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s), TransferFunction(-a*p**2 - b*s, -p + s, s)))
>>> S2.var
s
>>> S3 = Series(Parallel(tf1, tf2), Parallel(tf2, tf3))
>>> S3
Series(Parallel(TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, -p + s, s), TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)), Parallel(TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s), TransferFunction(p**2, p + s, s)))
>>> S3.var
s

You can get the resultant transfer function by using .doit() method:

>>> S3 = Series(tf1, tf2, -tf3)
>>> S3.doit()
TransferFunction(-p**2*(s**3 - 2)*(a*p**2 + b*s), (-p + s)*(p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)
>>> S4 = Series(tf2, Parallel(tf1, -tf3))
>>> S4.doit()
TransferFunction((s**3 - 2)*(-p**2*(-p + s) + (p + s)*(a*p**2 + b*s)), (-p + s)*(p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)

Notes

All the transfer functions should use the same complex variable var of the Laplace transform.

doit(**kwargs)[source]

Returns the resultant transfer function obtained after evaluating the transfer functions in series configuration.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Series
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> Series(tf2, tf1).doit()
TransferFunction((s**3 - 2)*(a*p**2 + b*s), (-p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)
>>> Series(-tf1, -tf2).doit()
TransferFunction((2 - s**3)*(-a*p**2 - b*s), (-p + s)*(s**4 + 5*s + 6), s)
property is_biproper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial of the resultant transfer function is equal to degree of the denominator polynomial of the same, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Series
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(p, s**2, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(s**2, 1, s)
>>> S1 = Series(tf1, -tf2)
>>> S1.is_biproper
False
>>> S2 = Series(tf2, tf3)
>>> S2.is_biproper
True
property is_proper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial of the resultant transfer function is less than or equal to degree of the denominator polynomial of the same, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Series
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(b*s**2 + p**2 - a*p + s, b - p**2, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(p**2 - 4*p, p**3 + 3*s + 2, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(s, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> S1 = Series(-tf2, tf1)
>>> S1.is_proper
False
>>> S2 = Series(tf1, tf2, tf3)
>>> S2.is_proper
True
property is_strictly_proper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial of the resultant transfer function is strictly less than degree of the denominator polynomial of the same, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Series
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**2 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction(1, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> S1 = Series(tf1, tf2)
>>> S1.is_strictly_proper
False
>>> S2 = Series(tf1, tf2, tf3)
>>> S2.is_strictly_proper
True
property var

Returns the complex variable used by all the transfer functions.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction, Series, Parallel
>>> G1 = TransferFunction(p**2 + 2*p + 4, p - 6, p)
>>> G2 = TransferFunction(p, 4 - p, p)
>>> G3 = TransferFunction(0, p**4 - 1, p)
>>> Series(G1, G2).var
p
>>> Series(-G3, Parallel(G1, G2)).var
p
class sympy.physics.control.lti.TransferFunction(num, den, var)[source]

A class for representing LTI (Linear, time-invariant) systems that can be strictly described by ratio of polynomials in the Laplace Transform complex variable. The arguments are num, den, and var, where num and den are numerator and denominator polynomials of the TransferFunction respectively, and the third argument is a complex variable of the Laplace transform used by these polynomials of the transfer function. num and den can be either polynomials or numbers, whereas var has to be a Symbol.

Parameters

num : Expr, Number

The numerator polynomial of the transfer function.

den : Expr, Number

The denominator polynomial of the transfer function.

var : Symbol

Complex variable of the Laplace transform used by the polynomials of the transfer function.

Raises

TypeError

When var is not a Symbol or when num or den is not a number or a polynomial. Also, when num or den has a time delay term.

ValueError

When den is zero.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(s + a, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> tf1
TransferFunction(a + s, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> tf1.num
a + s
>>> tf1.den
s**2 + s + 1
>>> tf1.var
s
>>> tf1.args
(a + s, s**2 + s + 1, s)

Any complex variable can be used for var.

>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(a*p**3 - a*p**2 + s*p, p + a**2, p)
>>> tf2
TransferFunction(a*p**3 - a*p**2 + p*s, a**2 + p, p)
>>> tf3 = TransferFunction((p + 3)*(p - 1), (p - 1)*(p + 5), p)
>>> tf3
TransferFunction((p - 1)*(p + 3), (p - 1)*(p + 5), p)

To negate a transfer function the - operator can be prepended:

>>> tf4 = TransferFunction(-a + s, p**2 + s, p)
>>> -tf4
TransferFunction(a - s, p**2 + s, p)
>>> tf5 = TransferFunction(s**4 - 2*s**3 + 5*s + 4, s + 4, s)
>>> -tf5
TransferFunction(-s**4 + 2*s**3 - 5*s - 4, s + 4, s)

You can use a Float or an Integer (or other constants) as numerator and denominator:

>>> tf6 = TransferFunction(1/2, 4, s)
>>> tf6.num
0.500000000000000
>>> tf6.den
4
>>> tf6.var
s
>>> tf6.args
(0.5, 4, s)

You can take the integer power of a transfer function using the ** operator:

>>> tf7 = TransferFunction(s + a, s - a, s)
>>> tf7**3
TransferFunction((a + s)**3, (-a + s)**3, s)
>>> tf7**0
TransferFunction(1, 1, s)
>>> tf8 = TransferFunction(p + 4, p - 3, p)
>>> tf8**-1
TransferFunction(p - 3, p + 4, p)

Addition, subtraction, and multiplication of transfer functions can form unevaluated Series or Parallel objects.

>>> tf9 = TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s)
>>> tf10 = TransferFunction(s - p, s + 3, s)
>>> tf11 = TransferFunction(4*s**2 + 2*s - 4, s - 1, s)
>>> tf12 = TransferFunction(1 - s, s**2 + 4, s)
>>> tf9 + tf10
Parallel(TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s), TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s))
>>> tf10 - tf11
Parallel(TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s), TransferFunction(-4*s**2 - 2*s + 4, s - 1, s))
>>> tf9 * tf10
Series(TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s), TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s))
>>> tf10 - (tf9 + tf12)
Parallel(TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s), TransferFunction(-s - 1, s**2 + s + 1, s), TransferFunction(s - 1, s**2 + 4, s))
>>> tf10 - (tf9 * tf12)
Parallel(TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s), Series(TransferFunction(-1, 1, s), Series(TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s), TransferFunction(1 - s, s**2 + 4, s))))
>>> tf11 * tf10 * tf9
Series(TransferFunction(4*s**2 + 2*s - 4, s - 1, s), TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s), TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s))
>>> tf9 * tf11 + tf10 * tf12
Parallel(Series(TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s), TransferFunction(4*s**2 + 2*s - 4, s - 1, s)), Series(TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s), TransferFunction(1 - s, s**2 + 4, s)))
>>> (tf9 + tf12) * (tf10 + tf11)
Series(Parallel(TransferFunction(s + 1, s**2 + s + 1, s), TransferFunction(1 - s, s**2 + 4, s)), Parallel(TransferFunction(-p + s, s + 3, s), TransferFunction(4*s**2 + 2*s - 4, s - 1, s)))

These unevaluated Series or Parallel objects can convert into the resultant transfer function using .doit() method or by .rewrite(TransferFunction).

>>> ((tf9 + tf10) * tf12).doit()
TransferFunction((1 - s)*((-p + s)*(s**2 + s + 1) + (s + 1)*(s + 3)), (s + 3)*(s**2 + 4)*(s**2 + s + 1), s)
>>> (tf9 * tf10 - tf11 * tf12).rewrite(TransferFunction)
TransferFunction(-(1 - s)*(s + 3)*(s**2 + s + 1)*(4*s**2 + 2*s - 4) + (-p + s)*(s - 1)*(s + 1)*(s**2 + 4), (s - 1)*(s + 3)*(s**2 + 4)*(s**2 + s + 1), s)

See also

Feedback, Series, Parallel

property den

Returns the denominator polynomial of the transfer function.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> G1 = TransferFunction(s + 4, p**3 - 2*p + 4, s)
>>> G1.den
p**3 - 2*p + 4
>>> G2 = TransferFunction(3, 4, s)
>>> G2.den
4
expand()[source]

Returns the transfer function with numerator and denominator in expanded form.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> G1 = TransferFunction((a - s)**2, (s**2 + a)**2, s)
>>> G1.expand()
TransferFunction(a**2 - 2*a*s + s**2, a**2 + 2*a*s**2 + s**4, s)
>>> G2 = TransferFunction((p + 3*b)*(p - b), (p - b)*(p + 2*b), p)
>>> G2.expand()
TransferFunction(-3*b**2 + 2*b*p + p**2, -2*b**2 + b*p + p**2, p)
property is_biproper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial is equal to degree of the denominator polynomial, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf1.is_biproper
True
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(p**2, p + a, p)
>>> tf2.is_biproper
False
property is_proper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial is less than or equal to degree of the denominator polynomial, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(b*s**2 + p**2 - a*p + s, b - p**2, s)
>>> tf1.is_proper
False
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(p**2 - 4*p, p**3 + 3*p + 2, p)
>>> tf2.is_proper
True
property is_strictly_proper

Returns True if degree of the numerator polynomial is strictly less than degree of the denominator polynomial, else False.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p, a, b
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> tf1 = TransferFunction(a*p**2 + b*s, s - p, s)
>>> tf1.is_strictly_proper
False
>>> tf2 = TransferFunction(s**3 - 2, s**4 + 5*s + 6, s)
>>> tf2.is_strictly_proper
True
property num

Returns the numerator polynomial of the transfer function.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> G1 = TransferFunction(s**2 + p*s + 3, s - 4, s)
>>> G1.num
p*s + s**2 + 3
>>> G2 = TransferFunction((p + 5)*(p - 3), (p - 3)*(p + 1), p)
>>> G2.num
(p - 3)*(p + 5)
property var

Returns the complex variable of the Laplace transform used by the polynomials of the transfer function.

Examples

>>> from sympy.abc import s, p
>>> from sympy.physics.control.lti import TransferFunction
>>> G1 = TransferFunction(p**2 + 2*p + 4, p - 6, p)
>>> G1.var
p
>>> G2 = TransferFunction(0, s - 5, s)
>>> G2.var
s